15 research outputs found

    Concentration curve of healthcare payments and Lorenz curve.

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    <p>Actual cumulative concentration curve for healthcare payments (including general tax, social and commercial health insurances, and OOP payments) and Lorenz curves in both urban and rural areas for 2002 and 2007.</p

    Share of healthcare financing amounts in Heilongjiang province during 2002 and 2007.

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    <p>Data source: China National Health Accounts Report.</p><p>Share of healthcare financing amounts in Heilongjiang province during 2002 and 2007.</p

    Conceptual cumulative concentration curve for healthcare payments and Lorenz curves.

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    <p>Conceptual cumulative concentration curve for healthcare payments and per capita household expenditure are shown. The concentration curve plots the cumulative percentage of healthcare payments (y-axis) against the cumulative percentage of the population (x-axis). Population is ranked according to ATP, from poorest to richest. The value of the concentration index is measured as twice the area between the concentration curve, L<sub>1</sub>, and the line of equality, L<sub>e</sub> (45°line running from the bottom-left corner to the top-right). The Lorenz curve (L<sub>2</sub>) represents the relationship between the cumulative percentage of per capita household expenditures and the cumulative percentage of the population, which is indicated by the Gini coefficient.</p

    Health care financing distribution by income quintile, concentration index (CI), and Kakwani index (KI).

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    <p>*Significant at 0.05.</p><p>**Significant at 0.01.</p><p>X indicates rejection of the null hypothesis that curves are indistinguishable in favor of curves crossing at the 5% significance level.</p><p>None indicates failure to reject the null hypothesis that curves are indistinguishable at the 5% significance level.</p><p>+/− indicates concentration curve dominates (is dominated by) the Lorenz curve or concentration curve in one year or area and dominates (is dominated by) the other in another year or area.</p><p>Health care financing distribution by income quintile, concentration index (CI), and Kakwani index (KI).</p

    Descriptive statistics and socioeconomic characteristics of survey respondents characterized by income quintile.

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    <p>Data source: author’s calculations based on household survey data.</p>a<p>All expenditures are presented in RMB.</p>b<p>All 2002 nominal prices have been adjusted to real prices from 2007 according to China’s Consumer Price Index (CPI).</p>c<p>Standard deviation.</p><p>Descriptive statistics and socioeconomic characteristics of survey respondents characterized by income quintile.</p

    A Novel Outlier-Robust Kalman Filtering Framework based on Statistical Similarity Measure

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    In this paper, a statistical similarity measure is in-troduced to quantify the similarity between two random vectors. The measure is then employed to develop a novel outlier-robust Kalman filtering framework. The approximation errors and the stability of the proposed filter are analyzed and discussed. To implement the filter, a fixed-point iterative algorithm and a separate iterative algorithm are given, and their local convergent conditions are also provided, and their comparisons have been made. In addition, selection of the similarity function is considered, and four exemplary similarity functions are established, from which the relations between our new method and existing outlier-robust Kalman filters are revealed. Simulation examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the new filtering scheme

    Conceptual cumulative concentration curve for government subsidies in terms of healthcare and income.

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    <p>Conceptual cumulative concentration curve for government subsidies in terms of healthcare and per capita income is shown. The concentration curve plots the cumulative percentage of health subsidy (y-axis) against the cumulative percentage of the population (x-axis). Population is ranked according to living standard, from the poorest to the richest. The concentration index is measured as twice the area between the concentration curve, L<sub>1</sub>, and the line of equality, L<sub>e</sub> (the 45° line running from the bottom-left corner to the top-right). The Lorenz curve (L<sub>2</sub>) represents the relationship between the cumulative percentage of per capita income and the cumulative percentage of the population, which is measured by the Gini coefficient.</p

    Hyper-Branched Cu@Cu<sub>2</sub>O Coaxial Nanowires Mesh Electrode for Ultra-Sensitive Glucose Detection.

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    Electrode design in nanoscale is expected to contribute significantly in constructing an enhanced electrochemical platform for a superb sensor. In this work, we present a facile synthesis of new fashioned heteronanostructure that is composed of one-dimensional Cu nanowires (NWs) and epitaxially grown two-dimensional Cu<sub>2</sub>O nanosheets (NSs). This hierarchical architecture is quite attractive in molecules detection for three unique characteristics: (1) the three-dimensional hierarchical architecture provides large specific surface areas for more active catalytic sites and easy accessibility for the target molecules; (2) the high-quality heterojunction with minimal lattice mismatch between the built-in current collector (Cu core) and active medium (Cu<sub>2</sub>O shell) considerably promotes the electron transport; (3) the adequate free space between branches and anisotropic NWs can accommodate a large volume change to avoid collapse or distortion during the reduplicative operation processes under applied potentials. The above three proposed advantages have been addressed in the fabricated Cu@Cu<sub>2</sub>O NS-NW-based superb glucose sensors, where a successful integration of ultrahigh sensitivity (1420 μA mM<sup>–1</sup> cm<sup>–2</sup>), low limit of detection (40 nM), and fast response (within 0.1 s) has been realized. Furthermore, the durability and reproducibility of such devices made by branched core–shell nanowires were investigated to prove viability of the proposed structures. This achievement in current work demonstrates an innovative strategy for nanoscale electrode design and application in molecular detection

    UiO-66-Coated Mesh Membrane with Underwater Superoleophobicity for High-Efficiency Oil–Water Separation

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    A UiO-66-coated mesh membrane with micro- and nanostructures was designed and successfully fabricated on steel mesh through a simple solution immersion process, exhibiting hydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties. It displays an outstanding oil–water separation efficiency over 99.99% with a high water permeation flux of 12.7 × 10<sup>4</sup> L m<sup>–2</sup> h<sup>–1</sup>, so high purity water (with the residual oil content less than 4 ppm) can be readily obtained from such a simple mesh membrane from various oil–water mixtures. Its large-scale membrane production will facilitate its practical usage for the industrial and environmental water purification
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