23 research outputs found

    Developmental duration (A, n = 240) and survival (B, n = 3) (mean ┬▒ SE) of <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i> nymphs on rice germplasms.

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    <p>Different letters over the bars in a panel indicate significant differences (Tukey HSD, <i>P</i> = 0.05).</p

    Weight of honeydew (mean ┬▒ SE, n = 30) excreted by female <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i> adults on rice germplasms.

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    <p>Different letters over the bars indicate significant differences (Tukey HSD, <i>P</i> = 0.05).</p

    Population size (no./100 hills, mean ┬▒ SE) of <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i> in field plots (n = 3) of the TN1, IR64, B5, HHZ, BR4831, 9311, HF106, and C602 rice germplasms.

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    <p>Population size (no./100 hills, mean ┬▒ SE) of <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i> in field plots (n = 3) of the TN1, IR64, B5, HHZ, BR4831, 9311, HF106, and C602 rice germplasms.</p

    Population parameters (mean ┬▒ SE) of <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i> fed on the TN1, IR64, B5, HHZ, BR4831, 9311, HF106, and C602 rice germplasms.

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    <p>Population parameters (mean ┬▒ SE) of <i>Nilaparvata lugens</i> fed on the TN1, IR64, B5, HHZ, BR4831, 9311, HF106, and C602 rice germplasms.</p

    APN activity in BBMV from susceptible and resistant <i>H</i>. <i>armigera</i> larvae.

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    <p>The same letter (a) above the standard error bars indicates no significant differences in mean APN activity among strains (P > 0.05).</p

    A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i>

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    <div><p>Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, <i>Helicoverpa armigera</i>, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC<sub>50</sub>) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from <i>H</i>. <i>armigera</i> (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.</p></div
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