53 research outputs found

    Gender and Occupational Mobility in Urban China during the Economic Transition

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    This paper examines the gender patterns of occupational mobility in post-reform Urban China using a national representative dataset. The results reveal marked differences between married men and women: women are more likely than men to undergo lateral or downward occupational changes, but are less likely to experience upward mobility. The results also show that the public-sector restructuring has increased the incidence of downward occupational mobility, more for women than men. The analysis suggests that women are disadvantaged in the occupational mobility process by a variety of social and institutional factors.Occupational mobility, Gender, Economic transition, Social networks

    Transparent Power-Generating Windows Based on Solar-Thermal-Electric Conversion

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    Zhang Q, Huang A, Ai X, et al. Transparent Power-Generating Windows Based on Solar-Thermal-Electric Conversion. Advanced Energy Materials . 2021: 2101213.Integrating transparent solar-harvesting systems into windows can provide renewable on-site energy supply without altering building aesthetics or imposing further design constraints. Transparent photovoltaics have shown great potential, but the increased transparency comes at the expense of reduced power-conversion efficiency. Here, a new technology that overcomes this limitation by combining solar-thermal-electric conversion with a material's wavelength-selective absorption is presented. A wavelength-selective film consisting of Cs0.33WO3 and resin facilitates high visible-light transmittance (up to 88%) and outstanding ultraviolet and infrared absorbance, thereby converting absorbed light into heat without sacrificing transparency. A prototype that couples the film with thermoelectric power generation produces an extraordinary output voltage of approximate to 4 V within an area of 0.01 m(2) exposed to sunshine. Further optimization design and experimental verification demonstrate high conversion efficiency comparable to state-of-the-art transparent photovoltaics, enriching the library of on-site energy-saving and transparent power generation

    Pemetrexed plus Platinum as the First-Line Treatment Option for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

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    To compare the efficacy and toxicities of pemetrexed plus platinum with other platinum regimens in patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using trials identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Two investigators independently assessed the quality of the trials and extracted data. The outcomes included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and different types of toxicity. Hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using RevMan software. Results: Four trials involving 2,518 patients with previously untreated advanced NSCLC met the inclusion criteria. Pemetrexed plus platinum chemotherapy (PPC) improved survival compared with other platinum-based regimens (PBR) in patients with advanced NSCLC (HR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83–1.00, p = 0.04), especially in those with non-squamous histology (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.77–0.98, p = 0.02). No statistically significant improvement in either PFS or RR was found in PPC group as compared with PBR group (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94–1.13, p = 0.57; OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.95–1.39, p = 0.15, respectively). Compared with PBR, PPC led to less grade 3–4 neutropenia and leukopenia but more grade 3–4 nausea. However, hematological toxicity analysis revealed significant heterogeneities. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PPC in the first-line setting leads to a significant survival advantage with acceptable toxicities for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology, as compared with other PRB. PPC could be considered as the first-line treatment option for advanced NSCLC patients, especially those with non-squamous histology

    8. Does Gender Make a Difference? Understanding Chinese Current Equality in Compulsory Education

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    China has long been implementing “Nine-Year Compulsory Education” as the basic school education, of which the principle of equality stands first. To achieve this goal, gender issues, especially the girl’s right to basic schooling, should be ensured. Gender equality in basic education not only means that girls have the same opportunity to attend school as boys, but that both society and family should provide every girl and boy with the same access to educational facilities, which requires attitudes free of sex bias.The statistical data show a narrowing gap between boys and girls over the years, such as expressed in enrolment and dropout rates, but sometimes neglect the actual problems that impede the development of girls in the course of education, especially in rural areas. For instance, this study shows that most of the children who do not receive compulsory education are girls. In the impoverished rural areas, especially in western China, girls have a more limited access to school and a greater probability of dropping out. The girls in the floating population encounter even worse conditions in terms of education. Gender preference still exists in the attitude of parents and gives rise to actual inequality, even if the girl does have the opportunity to attend school.La Chine a instauré, selon un principe d’égalité, neuf années d’éducation obligatoire pour tous les enfants. Mais pour remplir cet objectif, le droit des filles à l’éducation doit être garanti. L’égalité des sexes dans l’accès à l’instruction de base signifie d’une part que les filles doivent bénéficier d’un accès à l’école égal à celui des garçons, mais aussi que la société et les familles leur offrent les mêmes chances d’y accéder.Les données statistiques montrent une réduction du fossé filles/garçons dans l’accès à l’école ces dernières années, en particulier en ce qui concerne les taux de scolarisation et les taux d’abandon. Mais ces statistiques négligent parfois certains problèmes qui font obstacle au bon déroulement de la scolarité des filles, surtout en zones rurales. Cette étude montre par exemple que la plupart des enfants qui ne suivent pas le cursus scolaire de neuf années sont des filles. Dans les régions rurales les plus pauvres, notamment dans l’ouest de la Chine, les filles ont un moindre accès à l’école et connaissent de plus fortes probabilité d’abandon scolaire que les garçons. Les filles dont les parents ont migré connaissent en outre des conditions d’éducation plus mauvaises encore que celles des garçons. La préférence pour les fils est toujours perceptible dans l’attitude des parents vis à vis de l’éducation, ce qui donne lieu à des discriminations scolaires des filles

    Calculation of the Chilling Requirement for Air Conditioning in the Excavation Roadway

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    To effectively improve the climate conditions of the excavation roadway in coal mine, the calculation of the chilling requirement taking air conditioning measures is extremely necessary. The temperature field of the surrounding rock with moving boundary in the excavation roadway was numerically simulated by using finite volume method. The unstable heat transfer coefficient between the surrounding rock and air flow was obtained via the previous calculation. According to the coupling effects of the air flow inside and outside air duct, the differential calculation mathematical model of air flow temperature in the excavation roadway was established. The chilling requirement was calculated with the selfdeveloped computer program for forecasting the required cooling capacity of the excavation roadway. A good air conditioning effect had been observed after applying the calculated results to field trial, which indicated that the prediction method and calculation procedure were reliable

    High-performance porous carbon-zeolite mixed-matrix membranes for CO₂/N₂ separation

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    Nano-sized PS-MFI, ETS-10 and SAPO-34 zeolites were utilized as CO2-selective fillers to fabricate high-performance mixed-matrix carbon molecular sieve membranes (CMSMs) for application in the CO2/N2 separation process. In this work, an in-house polyimide, ODPA-TMPDA, was used as a polymer precursor for CMSMs, due to its higher intrinsic gas permeability compared with commercial polyimides. Zeolite-filled CMSMs were then successfully fabricated without any appreciable defects at the filler/matrix interfaces. Gas permeation testing revealed that both CO2 permeability and CO2/N2 selectivity can be significantly improved upon incorporation of such zeolite fillers, enabling selective adsorption and transport of CO2. In particular, SAPO-34 yielded the best results among the zeolite fillers tested, resulting in an excellent performance far beyond the Robeson upper bound limit for CO2/N2 separation.This work funded by Saudi Aramco-KAIST CO2 Management Center