42,468 research outputs found

    Recent progress in the transition radiation detector techniques

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    A list of some of the major experimental achievements involving charged particles in the relativistic region are presented. With the emphasis mainly directed to the X-ray region, certain modes of application of the transition radiation for the identification and separation of relativistic charged particles are discussed. Some recent developments in detection techniques and improvements in detector performances are presented. Experiments were also carried out to detect the dynamic radiation, but no evidence of such an effect was observed

    Avoiding the Detector Blinding Attack on Quantum Cryptography

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    We show the detector blinding attack by Lydersen et al [1] will be ineffective on most single photon avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and certainly ineffective on any detectors that are operated correctly. The attack is only successful if a redundant resistor is included in series with the APD, or if the detector discrimination levels are set inappropriately

    Quantum key distribution over 122 km of standard telecom fiber

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    We report the first demonstration of quantum key distribution over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 100 km in length. Through careful optimisation of the interferometer and single photon detector, we achieve a quantum bit error ratio of 8.9% for a 122km link, allowing a secure shared key to be formed after error correction and privacy amplification. Key formation rates of up to 1.9 kbit/sec are achieved depending upon fiber length. We discuss the factors limiting the maximum fiber length in quantum cryptography

    Optimal vaccination in a stochastic epidemic model of two non-interacting populations

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    Developing robust, quantitative methods to optimize resource allocations in response to epidemics has the potential to save lives and minimize health care costs. In this paper, we develop and apply a computationally efficient algorithm that enables us to calculate the complete probability distribution for the final epidemic size in a stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model. Based on these results, we determine the optimal allocations of a limited quantity of vaccine between two non-interacting populations. We compare the stochastic solution to results obtained for the traditional, deterministic SIR model. For intermediate quantities of vaccine, the deterministic model is a poor estimate of the optimal strategy for the more realistic, stochastic case.Comment: 21 pages, 7 figure

    A modal model for diffraction gratings

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    A description of an algorithm for a rather general modal grating calculation is presented. Arbitrary profiles, depth, and permittivity are allowed. Gratings built up from sub-gratings are allowed, as are coatings on the sidewalls of lines, and arbitrary complex structure. Conical angles and good conductors are supported

    NNLO QCD Corrections to t-channel Single Top-Quark Production and Decay

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    We present a fully differential next-to-next-to-leading order calculation of t-channel single top-quark production and decay at the LHC under narrow-width approximation and neglecting cross-talk between incoming protons. We focus on the fiducial cross sections at 13 TeV, finding that the next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections can reach the level of -6%. The scale variations are reduced to the level of a percent. Our results can be used to improve experimental acceptance estimates and the measurements of the single top-quark production cross section and the top-quark electroweak couplings.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, version appear on PRD rapid communicatio

    Photovoltaic Oscillations Due to Edge-Magnetoplasmon Modes in a Very-High Mobility 2D Electron Gas

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    Using very-high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron Hall bar samples, we have experimentally studied the photoresistance/photovoltaic oscillations induced by microwave irradiation in the regime where both 1/B and B-periodic oscillations can be observed. In the frequency range between 27 and 130 GHz we found that these two types of oscillations are decoupled from each other, consistent with the respective models that 1/B oscillations occur in bulk while the B-oscillations occur along the edges of the Hall bars. In contrast to the original report of this phenomenon (Ref. 1) the periodicity of the B-oscillations in our samples are found to be independent of L, the length of the Hall bar section between voltage measuring leads.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure
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