329,553 research outputs found

    Non-negative matrix factorization for self-calibration of photometric redshift scatter in weak lensing surveys

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    Photo-z error is one of the major sources of systematics degrading the accuracy of weak lensing cosmological inferences. Zhang et al. (2010) proposed a self-calibration method combining galaxy-galaxy correlations and galaxy-shear correlations between different photo-z bins. Fisher matrix analysis shows that it can determine the rate of photo-z outliers at a level of 0.01-1% merely using photometric data and do not rely on any prior knowledge. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to implement this method by solving a constrained nonlinear optimization problem arising in the self-calibration process. Based on the techniques of fixed-point iteration and non-negative matrix factorization, the proposed algorithm can efficiently and robustly reconstruct the scattering probabilities between the true-z and photo-z bins. The algorithm has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from simulated stage IV weak lensing projects. We find that the algorithm provides a successful recovery of the scatter rates at the level of 0.01-1%, and the true mean redshifts of photo-z bins at the level of 0.001, which may satisfy the requirements in future lensing surveys.Comment: 12 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in ApJ. Updated to match the published versio

    Weak lensing power spectrum reconstruction by counting galaxies.-- I: the ABS method

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    We propose an Analytical method of Blind Separation (ABS) of cosmic magnification from the intrinsic fluctuations of galaxy number density in the observed galaxy number density distribution. The ABS method utilizes the different dependences of the signal (cosmic magnification) and contamination (galaxy intrinsic clustering) on galaxy flux, to separate the two. It works directly on the measured cross galaxy angular power spectra between different flux bins. It determines/reconstructs the lensing power spectrum analytically, without assumptions of galaxy intrinsic clustering and cosmology. It is unbiased in the limit of infinite number of galaxies. In reality the lensing reconstruction accuracy depends on survey configurations, galaxy biases, and other complexities, due to finite number of galaxies and the resulting shot noise fluctuations in the cross galaxy power spectra. We estimate its performance (systematic and statistical errors) in various cases. We find that, stage IV dark energy surveys such as SKA and LSST are capable of reconstructing the lensing power spectrum at z≃1z\simeq 1 and \ell\la 5000 accurately. This lensing reconstruction only requires counting galaxies, and is therefore highly complementary to the cosmic shear measurement by the same surveys.Comment: v1: 13 pages, 10 figures. v2: minor revisions. ApJ in pres

    Kriging Interpolating Cosmic Velocity Field

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    [abridged] Volume-weighted statistics of large scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in mass-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nkn_k of the nearby particles to interpolate and the density nPn_P of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1%1\% and 3%3\% systematics at k∼0.1hMpcβˆ’1k\sim 0.1h{\rm Mpc}^{-1} when nP∼6Γ—10βˆ’2(Mpc/h)βˆ’3n_P\sim 6\times 10^{-2} ({\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3} and nP∼6Γ—10βˆ’3(Mpc/h)βˆ’3n_P\sim 6\times 10^{-3} ({\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}, respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nPn_P and increasing kk. When nP≲6Γ—10βˆ’4(Mpc/h)βˆ’3n_P\lesssim 6\times 10^{-4} ({\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}, a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nkn_k helps to recover small scale power. However, for nP≲6Γ—10βˆ’4(Mpc/h)βˆ’3n_P\lesssim 6\times 10^{-4} ({\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3} cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method (Zheng et al. 2013) and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, published in PR
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