9 research outputs found

    Parametric All-Optical Modulation on Chip

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    We demonstrate parametric all-optical modulation in a periodically-poled lithium niobate microring resonator on chip. It employs quantum Zeno blockade between two distinct waves, a signal and a pump, through their sum-frequency generation at a large per-photon efficiency of 8.2 MHz. With nanosecond pump pulses at 6 mW peak power, 85.7% modulation extinction is observed, marking over 30~times efficiency improvement across various previous implementations. With only 2 mW pump peak power, 43.0% modulation extinction is observed for a doubly-stronger signal at 4 mW. This demonstrates, for the first time, that optical transistors with cascadability and fan-out are possible with just parametric nonlinear optics. These results, together with inherent advantages in such photonic integrated circuits, open the door to scalable technology for all-optical and quantum information processing

    Phylogenetic neighbor-joining trees of the haloarchaeal 16S rDNA sequences.

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    <p>The nucleotide sequences flanking the initiation codons of their corresponding <i>hsp70</i> genes had been shown in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138473#pone.0138473.s001" target="_blank">S1 Fig</a>. The strains, in which nucleotides flanking the initiation codons of <i>hsp70</i> gene were not in consensus, were marked with thick lines and ●.</p

    Bioinformatic analysis of the nucleotide sequences flanking the start codons of <i>hsp70</i> genes from 92 sequenced haloarchaea.

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    <p>The sequences from -10 to +10 were downloaded from NCBI and the sequence logo was generated by Weblogo [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0138473#pone.0138473.ref026" target="_blank">26</a>]. The first base of start codon was defined as position +1.</p

    Start codon selectivities at haloarchaeal transcripts in the presence and absence of short 5’-UTR.

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    <p>(A) The 203-bp DNA sequence preceding the <i>bgaH</i> ORF in plasmid pTMJ was identical to the upstream sequence of <i>hsp70</i> ORF in <i>Natrinema</i> sp. J7. The bases at the 5’-end of transcripts were shown schematically. Their start codons were underlined and the mutations were in grey. The <i>β</i>-galactosidase specific activities (BgaH activities), the <i>bgaH</i> transcript levels and the translational efficiencies of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> transformants were tabulated. (B) The translational efficiencies of (A) were shown schematically after normalization to that of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> DS70/pTMJ. (C) The expression of the BgaH protein. Western blot analysis of the BgaH protein in total proteins was performed using anti-BgaH antibody. The <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> transformants were cultivated for 5 days at 45°C and then sprayed with X-Gal. The constructs present in each transformant were indicated under the colonies.</p

    The effects of the bases in 5’-UTR other than -3A on gene expression.

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    <p>(A) The bases at the 5’-end of transcripts were shown schematically and the mutation bases were in grey. The <i>β</i>-galactosidase specific activities (BgaH activities), the <i>bgaH</i> transcript levels and the translational efficiencies in recombinant strains were tabulated. (B) The translational efficiencies of (A) were shown schematically after normalization to that of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> DS70/pTMJ. (C) Colonies of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> transformants sprayed with X-Gal. The constructs present in each transformant were indicated under the colonies.</p

    The effect of the nucleotide at position -3 on gene expression.

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    <p>(A) The bases at the 5’-end of transcripts were shown schematically and the mutational bases were in grey. The <i>β</i>-galactosidase specific activities (BgaH activities), the <i>bgaH</i> transcript levels and the translational efficiencies of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> transformants were tabulated. (B) The translational efficiencies of (A) were shown schematically after normalization to that of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> DS70/pTMJ. (C) Colonies of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> transformants sprayed with X-Gal. The strains were cultivated for 5 days and then sprayed with X-Gal. The constructs present in each transformant were indicated under the colonies.</p

    The effects of the base substitutions in the penultimate amino acid codon.

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    <p>(A) The bases at the 5’-end of transcripts were shown schematically and the substitutions were in grey. The <i>β</i>-galactosidase specific activities (BgaH activities), the <i>bgaH</i> transcript levels and the translational efficiencies of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> strains were tabulated. (B) The translational efficiencies of (A) were shown schematically after normalization to that of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> DS70/pTMJ. (C) Colonies of <i>Hfx</i>. <i>volcanii</i> transformants sprayed with X-Gal. The constructs present in each transformant were indicated under the colonies.</p

    Molar Range Detection Based on Sideband Differential Absorption Spectroscopy with a Concentrated Reference

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    Conventional absorption spectroscopy (CAS) with a blank reference has only a slight capacity to detect high concentrations at characteristic wavelengths owing to the corresponding large molar absorption coefficient (ε) on the scale of 10<sup>3</sup> or 10<sup>4</sup> cm<sup>–1</sup> M<sup>–1</sup>. To monitor concentrated analytes as high as the molar range in a plating bath and on a chemical production line, we propose a new approach using sideband differential absorption spectroscopy (SDAS). SDAS is obtained by subtracting the absorption spectra of the samples, <i>A</i>(λ,<i>C</i><sub><i>x</i></sub>), from that of a reference containing a concentrated standard analyte, <i>A</i>(λ,<i>C</i><sub>ref</sub>><i>C</i><sub><i>x</i></sub>), resulting in concave spectra with peaks at the sideband of conventional spectra with generally low ε values on the scale of 100 cm<sup>–1</sup> M<sup>–1</sup> or less. The negative absorbance changes linearly with the sample concentration at a certain peak wavelength, obeying Lambert–Beer’s law. In this work, SDAS was obtained and verified using inorganic and organic substances, such as chromate potassium, rhodamine B, and paracetamol
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