2,604 research outputs found

    Development and Validation of Pre-service Teachers\u27 Personal Epistemologies of Teaching Scale (PT-PETS)

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    The Internet has changed not only how we conceptualize knowledge, but also how we learn in classroom. Knowledge is not any longer transmitted from experts to non-experts, but is constructed through communication, collaboration, and integration among a network of people. In this context, teachers are expected to facilitate student-centered learning by helping students to construct knowledge through higher-order thinking rather than reproduce a series of facts. Although a growing body of research suggests that teachers\u27 beliefs about the nature of knowledge and the process of knowing, that is personal epistemology, are related to their teaching and their students\u27 learning, little work has done to examine its role of teachers\u27 personal epistemologies in preparing future generations of teachers. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument designed to assess pre-service teachers\u27 personal epistemologies of teaching (PT-PETS). The PT-PETS was administered to two samples of pre-service teachers. Factor analysis of the results revealed a multidimensional construct composed of three factors: Construction of Teaching Knowledge, Contextuality of Teaching Knowledge, and Complexity of Teaching Knowledge. The Construction of Teaching Knowledge consists of 9 items (i.e., Teaching knowledge is handed down by external authority or constructed by individuals). The Contextuality of Teaching Knowledge consists of 8 items (i.e., Teaching knowledge is viewed as absolute or contextual). And the Complexity of Teaching Knowledge contains 3 items (i.e., Teaching knowledge is viewed as an accumulation of facts or comprise highly interrelated concepts). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the nomological relationships between the three latent constructs of the PT-PETS and other factors related to knowledge construction. Results indicate that pre-service teachers\u27 perceptions of their instructors\u27 pedagogical practices are positively related to their beliefs in the Complexity of Teaching knowledge. Interestingly, pre-service teachers\u27 knowledge sharing self-efficacy is negatively related to their personal epistemologies of teaching, while their information evaluation self-efficacy is positively related to them. However, the mediating role of information evaluation self-efficacy was found to enhance the positive indirect effect of knowledge sharing self-efficacy, while simultaneously reducing its negative direct effect to personal epistemologies of teaching. In general, pre-service teachers who reported experiencing inductive teaching practices by their instructors were more likely to be aware of the complexity of teaching knowledge. Students who reported feeling confident in both sharing knowledge and evaluating information also tended to be those who hold sophisticated beliefs in the nature of teaching knowledge and the process of knowing. Overall the Pre-service Teachers\u27 Personal Epistemologies of Teaching (PT-PETS) provides a psychometrically sound instrument for teacher educators and researchers interested in understanding pre-service teachers\u27 personal epistemologies and knowledge construction

    Endovascular Salvage of Immature Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistulae

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    PurposeTo assess the anatomical causes of immature hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and the outcome of the endovascular salvage.MethodsOver a 4-year period, 51 dysfunctional and 3 thrombosed immature AVF were treated by endovascular intervention, which included percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and accessory vein obliteration by coil insertion or surgical ligation. Anatomical causes, clinical characteristics and the success rate of the endovascular salvage of the immature AVF were retrospectively analyzed.ResultsThe access types were 27 radiocephalic fistulae, 25 brachiocephalic fistulae, and 2 transposed basilic vein fistulae. Mean interval from access creation to referral to angiography was 116 days (44–349 days). Anatomic problems were identified in 53 cases (98%). The causes of the immature AVF were stenosis (59%), accessory vein (22%), and combined stenosis and accessory vein (15%) and deeply located vein (4%) in the upper arm fistulae, and stenosis (67%), accessory vein (11%), combined stenosis and accessory vein (11%), poor surgical technique (7%), and deeply located vein (4%) in the forearm fistulae. New fistulae were created in the cases of immature AVF due to poor surgical technique, and surgical superficialization was done in the cases of deeply located veins. In the remaining cases, overall clinical success rate of endovascular salvage was 94.4%.ConclusionImmature AVF should be timely treated, because the most common causes are stenosis and accessory vein. Endovascular intervention can treat majority of cases with high success rate

    Isolation and functional characterization of CE1 binding proteins

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that controls seed germination, protective responses to various abiotic stresses and seed maturation. The ABA-dependent processes entail changes in gene expression. Numerous genes are regulated by ABA, and promoter analyses of the genes revealed that <it>cis</it>-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus sequence are ubiquitous among ABA-regulated gene promoters. The importance of the core sequence, which is generally known as ABA response element (ABRE), has been demonstrated by various experiments, and its cognate transcription factors known as ABFs/AREBs have been identified. Although necessary, ABRE alone is not sufficient, and another <it>cis</it>-element known as "coupling element (CE)" is required for full range ABA-regulation of gene expression. Several CEs are known. However, despite their importance, the cognate transcription factors mediating ABA response via CEs have not been reported to date. Here, we report the isolation of transcription factors that bind one of the coupling elements, CE1.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>To isolate CE1 binding proteins, we carried out yeast one-hybrid screens. Reporter genes containing a trimer of the CE1 element were prepared and introduced into a yeast strain. The yeast was transformed with library DNA that represents RNA isolated from ABA-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. From the screen of 3.6 million yeast transformants, we isolated 78 positive clones. Analysis of the clones revealed that a group of AP2/ERF domain proteins binds the CE1 element. We investigated their expression patterns and analyzed their overexpression lines to investigate the <it>in vivo </it>functions of the CE element binding factors (CEBFs). Here, we show that one of the CEBFs, AtERF13, confers ABA hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas two other CEBFs enhance sugar sensitivity.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our results indicate that a group of AP2/ERF superfamily proteins interacts with CE1. Several CEBFs are known to mediate defense or abiotic stress response, but the physiological functions of other CEBFs remain to be determined. Our <it>in vivo </it>functional analysis of several CEBFs suggests that they are likely to be involved in ABA and/or sugar response. Together with previous results reported by others, our current data raise an interesting possibility that the coupling element CE1 may function not only as an ABRE but also as an element mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses.</p

    Differential effect of NF-κB activity on β-catenin/Tcf pathway in various cancer cells

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    Abstractβ-Catenin/Tcf and NF-κB pathways play an important role in biological functions. We determined the underlying mechanisms of differential interaction between two pathways in various human cancer cell lines. NF-κB positively regulated β-catenin/Tcf pathways in human glioblastoma, whereas it has an opposite effect on β-catenin/Tcf pathways in colon, liver, and breast cancer cells. Expression of lucine zipper tumor suppressor 2 (lzts2) was positively regulated by NF-κB activity in colon, liver, and breast cancer cells, whereas negatively regulated in glioma cells. Downregulation of lzts2 increased the β-catenin/Tcf promoter activity and inhibited NF-κB-induced modulation of the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These data indicate that the differential crosstalk between β-catenin/Tcf and NF-κB pathway in various cancer cells is resulted from the differences in the regulation of NF-κB-induced lzts2 expression

    Cell-free synthesis of functional phospholipase A1 from Serratia sp.

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    Additional file 1: Figure S1 Gas chromatography analysis of sesame oil incubated with cell-free synthesized PLA1

    CHANGE IN SPATIOTEMPORAL CYCLE VARIABLES & MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING CtASSlC ROLLER SKI DOUBLE POLING TECHNIQUE

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    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of distance covered while roller skiing using the double poling technique. Five national team members and college elite cross-country skiers were chosen to participate in this study. EMG system and digital camcorder were used to measure spatiotemporal cycle variables, muscular fatigue, and activation patterns. There were no significant differences on cycle variables. However, the result shows accumulation of fatigue and decrease of muscle activation on triceps brachii and tibialis anterior muscles across skiing distance

    A fatal case of acute pulmonary embolism caused by right ventricular masses of acute lymphoblastic lymphoma-leukemia in a 13 year old girl

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    We report a case of a 13-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic lymphoma-leukemia, who presented with a cardiac metastasis in the right ventricle, resulting in a pulmonary embolism. At the time of her leukemia diagnosis, a cardiac mass was incidentally found. The differential diagnosis for this unusual cardiac mass included cardiac tumor, metastasis, vegetation, and thrombus. Empirical treatment was initiated, including anticoagulation and antibiotics. She underwent plasmapheresis and was administered oral prednisolone for her leukemia. Five days later, she experienced sudden hemodynamic collapse and required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation insertion and emergency surgery. These interventions proved futile, and the patient died. Pathology revealed that the cardiac mass comprised an aggregation of small, round, necrotic cells consistent with leukemia. This is the first known case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting as a right ventricular mass, with consequent fatal acute pulmonary embolism. A cardiac mass in a child with acute leukemia merits investigation to rule out every possible etiology, including vegetation, thrombus, and even a mass of leukemic cells, which could result in the fatal complication of pulmonary embolism
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