24 research outputs found

    Detection of flavonoid composition in seed coats from transgenic and control <i>B. napus</i> plants.

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    <p>Analyses were performed by LC-UV-MS on seed coats of T<sub>2</sub> antisense <i>BnTT10</i> transgenic and control lines of <i>B. napus</i> cv. Zhongyou821. Q-3-G, Quercetin-3-glucoside; PC dimer B2, [DP2]-B2, epicatechin-(4β-8)-epicatechin; EC, epicatechin; K-3-O-G-7-O-G, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside-7-O-glucoside; I-di-H, isorhamnetin-dihexoside. Each value represents the means of three independent experiments +/− SD.</p

    Lignin content in seed coats of transgenic and control lines.

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    <p>Lignin content was analyzed for seed coats of T<sub>2</sub> antisense <i>BnTT10</i> transgenic and control lines using the acetyl bromide method. Data are means for three T<sub>2</sub> progenies of each line, with triplicate measurements in each sample. The <i>P</i>-value is for a <i>t</i>-test for means of paired samples. W-10, W-12 and W-13: transgenic lines with inhibited <i>BnTT10</i> expression; W-22: transgenic lines with no inhibition in <i>BnTT10</i> expression; W-24: control lines with normal <i>BnTT10</i> expression. T<sub>2</sub>-P: positive T<sub>2</sub> progenies; T<sub>2</sub>-N: negative T<sub>2</sub> progenies after separation. Each value represents the means of three independent experiments +/− SD.</p

    Expression patterns of <i>BnTT10</i>, <i>BrTT10</i> and <i>BoTT10</i> genes in black- and yellow-seeded lines.

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    <p>QRT-PCR detection of <i>BnTT10</i> (A), <i>BrTT10</i> (C) and <i>BoTT10</i> (E) family mRNA, and transcript levels of <i>BnTT10</i> (B), <i>BrTT10</i> (D) and <i>BoTT10</i> (F) family members in reproductive organs of <i>B</i>. <i>napus</i>, <i>B. rapa</i> and <i>B. oleracea</i> black- and yellow-seeded near-isogenic lines. Error bars represent standard deviations (<i>n</i> = 3 for A, C and E).</p

    Seed pigmentation observation.

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    <p>Seedpods were sampled at 42, 50, 55, 60 and 45 DAF and the opened pods were observed under a low-power stereoscope. 5 DAH: five days after harvest. Seed coat pigmentation in the T<sub>2</sub> transgenic and control <i>B. napus</i> cv. Zhongyou821 (A) and Zhongshuang10 (B).</p

    Soluble and insoluble PAs measured after acid-catalyzed hydrolysis in seed coats transgenic and control lines.

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    <p>The <i>P</i>-value is for a <i>t</i>-test for means of paired samples. W-10, W-12, W-13: transgenic lines with inhibited <i>BnTT10</i> expression; W-22: transgenic lines with no inhibition in <i>BnTT10</i> expression; W-24: control lines with normal <i>BnTT10</i> expression. T<sub>2</sub>-P: positive T<sub>2</sub> progenies; T<sub>2</sub>-N: negative T<sub>2</sub> progenies after separation. Soluble (A) and insoluble PA (B) content in seed coats of T<sub>2</sub> transgenic and control <i>B. napus</i> cv. Westar plants. Each value represents the means of three independent experiments +/− SD.</p

    Multiple sequence alignment of the kinase domains of 32 BraMAPK proteins.

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    <p>Alignment was performed using ClustalW2 and displayed using GeneDoc. Identical sequences are highlighted in black and similar residues in gray shading. The 11 kinase subdomains are in italicized roman numerals (I to XI) above the sequence. P-loop, C-loop, activation-loop motifs and common docking domain are indicated by lines above the alignments. The phosphorylation-activation motif TXY is indicated by an asterisk. Bra: <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>.</p

    Heat map showing expression levels of <i>BraMPK</i> genes in the seedling leaves under abiotic stresses.

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    <p>Transcription levels of <i>BraMPAK</i> genes were determined by qRT-PCR with gene-specific primers under salt (200 mM NaCl), heat (37°C), cold (4°C), osmotic (10% PEG-8000), waterlogging, and wound stresses. The relative expressions (ΔΔCt) were compared to expressions in mock-treated samples, and used to create the heat map. Data represents a mean value of three repeats from three independent qRT-PCR assays. SS, HS, LS, OS, WL, and WS denote salt, heat, cold, osmotic, waterlogging, and wound stress treatments, respectively. Asterisk (*) on the right corner of number indicate the significant difference (<i>p</i>-value < 0.05) compared with mock-treated controls. The color scale represents the relative expression levels (red refers to up-regulation of gene expression, green to down-regulation of gene expression, and white indicates unchanged gene expression).</p

    Phylogenetic relationships of plant ω-3 FAD proteins.

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    <p>The ω-3 FAD proteins from chia, perilla, and other plants were multi-aligned using the MAFFT7 program with default parameters. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by using the SeaView 4.0 with the BioNJ method (1000 bootstrap replicates). The organism name, accession numbers and subcellular predictions of other plant ω-3 FAD proteins are shown in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0191432#pone.0191432.s004" target="_blank">S4 Table</a>. The ω-3 FAD proteins from chia and perilla are indicated by the red squares and red triangles, respectively.</p

    Phylogenetic relationships of plant <i>MAPK</i> proteins.

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    <p>The phylogenetic tree was generated by the NJ method with bootstrap analysis (1000 replicates) from the amino acid sequence alignment of MAPK protiens in <i>Arabidopsis</i>, <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>, rice, <i>Zea mays</i>, and other plants using MEGA 6.0 program. The tree was displayed with FigTree v1.4.0. Bootstrap values of >50% are denoted at the nodes. Plant MAPK proteins in the phylogenetic tree were clustered into four distinct groups (Groups A, B, C, and D). At: <i>A</i>. <i>thaliana</i>; Bra: <i>B</i>. <i>rapa</i>; Cr: <i>Catharanthus roseus</i>; Gh: <i>G</i>. <i>hirsutum</i>; Md: <i>M</i>. <i>domestica</i>; Nt: <i>N</i>. <i>tabacum</i>; Os: <i>O</i>. <i>sativa</i>; Ps: <i>Pisum sativum</i>; St: <i>Solanum tuberosum</i>; Ta: <i>T</i>. <i>aestivum</i>; Zm: <i>Z</i>. <i>mays</i>.</p

    Tissue-specific expression profiles of <i>BraMPK</i> genes.

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    <p>The tissue-specific expression levels of 32 <i>BraMPK</i> genes were obtained from the RNA-seq data (accession number GSE43245) and resulting FPKM values. This heat map was generated based on the log<sub>2</sub>-transformed (FPKM + 1) values of 32 <i>BraMAPK</i> genes in six different tissues (callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique). Red indicates high expression and white indicates low expression.</p
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