10,048 research outputs found

    ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND FEDERAL IRRIGATION POLICY: A REAPPRAISAL

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    Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    The results of a wind tunnel investigation of a model rotor with a free tip

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    The results of a wind-tunnel test of the free tip rotor are presented. The free tip extended over the outer 10% of the rotor blade and included a simple, passive controller mechanism. Wind-tunnel test hardware is described. The free-tip assembly, which includes the controller, functioned flawlessly throughout the test. The tip pitched freely and responded to airflow perturbation in a sharp, quick, and stable manner. Tip pitch-angle responses are presented for an advance ratio range of 0.1 to 0.397 and for a thrust coefficient range of 0.038 to 0.092. The free tip reduced power requirements, loads going into the control system, and some flatwise blade-bending moments. Chordwise loads were not reduced by the free tip

    RURAL-TO-URBAN WATER TRANSFERS: MEASURING DIRECT FOREGONE BENEFITS OF IRRIGATION WATER UNDER UNCERTAIN WATER SUPPLIES

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    Irrigation water from a southeastern Colorado county has been sold to distant municipalities. The county's junior water right delivered limited and uncertain water supplies which were used on relatively poor soils. The ability of water markets to allocate water to the highest-valued use was addressed by assessing the direct foregone benefits of the transfer using deterministic and discrete stochastic sequential (DSSP) programming models. Crop mix predicted by the DSSP followed observed regional patterns. The DSSP was thus used to derive regional water demand from which foregone value was estimated. Direct regional foregone agricultural benefits were relatively low-due to uncertain water supplies and unproductive soils-indicating the market selected a low-valued supply for transfer.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    AN ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF THE COLORADO RIVER BASIN SALINITY CONTROL PROGRAM

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    Dissolved salts (salinity) adversely affect numerous urban and agricultural users of Colorado River water in California and Arizona. Congress in 1974 authorized a major salinity control program. Studies of general economic benefits from salinity abatement and the cost per unit of salinity reduction expected from specific proposed projects have been developed by the responsible federal agencies, but no project-by-project evaluation has been published. We find a conceptual basis for a substantial downward revision of prospective economic benefits of salinity abatement. Revised benefits are compared with estimated costs, and only for five of the nineteen projects do economic benefits appear to exceed costs.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Measuring Foregone Direct Benefits of Irrigation Water Transfers: The Effect of Model Specification

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    Crop Production/Industries, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Thoughts on Economic Evaluation and the Western Water Policy Wars

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    Modelling mechanical percolation in graphene-reinforced elastomer nanocomposites

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    Graphene is considered an ideal filler for the production of multifunctional nanocomposites; as a result, considerable efforts have been focused on the evaluation and modeling of its reinforcement characteristics. In this work, we modelled successfully the mechanical percolation phenomenon, observed on a thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) reinforced by graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), by designing a new set of equations for filler contents below and above the percolation threshold volume fraction (Vp). The proposed micromechanical model is based on a combination of the well-established shear-lag theory and the rule-of-mixtures and was introduced to analyse the different stages and mechanisms of mechanical reinforcement. It was found that when the GNPs content is below Vp, reinforcement originates from the inherent ability of individual GNPs flakes to transfer stress efficiently. Furthermore, at higher filler contents and above Vp, the nanocomposite materials displayed accelerated stiffening due to the reduction of the distance between adjacent flakes. The model derived herein, was consistent with the experimental data and the reasons why the superlative properties of graphene cannot be fully utilized in this type of composites, were discussed in depth.Comment: 29 pages, 12 figure

    Derivation of supply curves for catchment water effluents meeting specific salinity concentration targets in 2050: linking farm and catchment level models or “Footprints on future salt / water planes”

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    The salt burden in a stream reflects the blend of salty and fresh flows from different soil areas in its catchment. Depending not only on long-run rainfall, water yields from a soil are also determined by land cover: lowest if the area is forested and greatest if cleared. Water yields under agro-forestry, lucerne pasture, perennial grass pasture, and annual pasture or cropping options span the range of water yields between the extremes of forested and cleared lands. This study explores quantitative approaches for connecting the hydrologic and economic consequences of farm-level decisions on land cover (productive land uses) to the costs of attaining different catchment level targets of water volumes and salt reaching downstream users; environmental, agricultural, domestic, commercial and industrial. This connection is critical for the resolution of the externality dilemma of meeting downstream demands for water volume and quality. New technology, new products and new markets will expand options for salinity abatement measures in the dryland farming areas of watershed catchments. The development of appropriate policy solutions to address demands for water volumes and quality depends on the possibility of inducing targeted land use change in those catchments or parts of catchments where decreased saline flows or increased fresh water flows can return the best value for money. This study provides such a link.salinity, targets, opportunity cost, concentration, dilution, effluent, externality, supply, demand, policy, water quality, new technology, new markets, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
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