2,016 research outputs found

    The Constitutional Law of State Debt

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    Childhood Inequality in China

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    In recent decades, China has transformed from a relatively egalitarian society to a highly unequal one. What are the implications of high levels of inequality for the lives of children? Drawing on two newly available, nationally representative datasets, the China Family Panel Studies and the China Education Panel Survey, we develop a comprehensive portrait of childhood inequality in post-reform China. Analyses reveal stark disparities between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds in family environments and in welfare outcomes, including physical health, psychosocial health, and educational performance. We argue that childhood inequality in China is driven not only by the deprivations of poverty, but also by the advantages of affluence, as high socioeconomic status children diverge from their middle and low socioeconomic status counterparts on various family environment and child welfare measures

    PSAPP mice exhibit regionally selective reductions in gliosis and plaque deposition in response to S100B ablation

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Numerous studies have reported that increased expression of S100B, an intracellular Ca<sup>2+ </sup>receptor protein and secreted neuropeptide, exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the ability of S100B inhibitors to prevent/reverse AD histopathology remains controversial. This study examines the effect of S100B ablation on <it>in vivo </it>plaque load, gliosis and dystrophic neurons.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Because S100B-specific inhibitors are not available, genetic ablation was used to inhibit S100B function in the PSAPP AD mouse model. The PSAPP/S100B<sup>-/- </sup>line was generated by crossing PSAPP double transgenic males with S100B<sup>-/- </sup>females and maintained as PSAPP/S100B<sup>+/- </sup>crosses. Congo red staining was used to quantify plaque load, plaque number and plaque size in 6 month old PSAPP and PSAPP/S100B<sup>-/- </sup>littermates. The microglial marker Iba1 and astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used to quantify gliosis. Dystrophic neurons were detected with the phospho-tau antibody AT8. S100B immunohistochemistry was used to assess the spatial distribution of S100B in the PSAPP line.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>PSAPP/S100B<sup>-/- </sup>mice exhibited a regionally selective decrease in cortical but not hippocampal plaque load when compared to PSAPP littermates. This regionally selective reduction in plaque load was accompanied by decreases in plaque number, GFAP-positive astrocytes, Iba1-positive microglia and phospho-tau positive dystrophic neurons. These effects were not attributable to regional variability in the distribution of S100B. Hippocampal and cortical S100B immunoreactivity in PSAPP mice was associated with plaques and co-localized with astrocytes and microglia.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Collectively, these data support S100B inhibition as a novel strategy for reducing cortical plaque load, gliosis and neuronal dysfunction in AD and suggest that both extracellular as well as intracellular S100B contribute to AD histopathology.</p

    The 3 C’s of Consideration for COVID-19 Workplace Fever Detection Device Selection: Context, Calibration & Cost

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    COVID-19 screening protocols have become normal practice for employees entering workplaces around the world. However, workplace screening programs that include temperature detection via infrared thermometers or thermal detection cameras often violate many technical specifications for the correct use of these devices. Therefore, this article aims to provide practical guidance for non-thermal imaging specialists responsible for selecting thermal detection devices for workplace screening protocols. Focusing on three critical points of consideration, including the context of use, calibration of equipment, and cost of purchase and maintenance, readers are presented with a framework to guide their decision-making. This framework not only prioritizes the health and wellbeing of employees by ensuring the context of use is appropriate but balances the cost of calibration, purchasing and additional supporting supplies. Further, the presented framework extends beyond the COVID-19 pandemic and can be easily adapted to implement any new workplace technology

    Obstetrics Emergency Labor and Delivery Case Simulations with Normal Vaginal Delivery Demonstration: A Hands-on Simulation for Clerkship Students

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    Introduction: Simulation is rarely used for medical student education in the field of obstetrics. This method is an effective model of learning for topics that are encountered in clinical situations and for topics that pose significant risk to patients when an untrained individual is involved. Methods: A 2-hour obstetric delivery simulation session was developed and incorporated into the third-year obstetrics and gynecology clerkship rotation at Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine. Medical students completed self-guided content reviews with resources provided prior to the session. During the session, each medical student conducted a normal vaginal delivery and one of the emergent cases (umbilical cord prolapse, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and postpartum hemorrhage). During each case the Resident facilitator followed a script which included asking questions using gamification strategies to promote a low-stress learning environment. Critical action checklists were used to ensure students gained a strong understanding of topics. Simulation sessions were conducted both remotely and in-person. The simulation experience was evaluated using surveys and quizzes completed prior to and after participating in the simulation session. Results: Students reported that the simulation experience increased their comfort with emergent obstetric situations, increased their medical knowledge, and was beneficial to their education. Discussion: Simulation is an untapped learning method in obstetrics. We developed simulations for obstetric events to provide medical students with hands-on exposure to important obstetric experiences. This simulation session provides the framework for other medical schools to incorporate these obstetric simulations into their clerkship curriculum

    Substrate specificity of the neutral sphingomyelinase from Trypanosoma brucei

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    This work was supported primarily through the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreements no. 602773 (Project KINDRED), with additional support from Wellcome Trust Project grant (086658); Medical Research Council (MR/M020118/1) and the School of Chemistry (The University of St Andrews).The kinetoplastid parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanosomiasis in both humans and animals. Infections place a significant health and economic burden on developing nations in sub-Saharan Africa, but few effective anti-parasitic treatments are currently available. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify new leads for drug development. The T. brucei neutral sphingomyelinase (TbnSMase) was previously established as essential to parasite survival, consequently being identified as a potential drug target. This enzyme may catalyse the single route to sphingolipid catabolism outside the T. brucei lysosome. To obtain new insight into parasite sphingolipid catabolism, the substrate specificity of TbnSMase was investigated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Recombinant TbnSMase was shown to degrade sphingomyelin, inositol-phosphoceramide and ethanolamine-phosphoceramide sphingolipid substrates, consistent with the sphingolipid complement of the parasites. TbnSMase also catabolized ceramide-1-phosphate, but was inactive towards sphingosine-1-phosphate. The broad-range specificity of this enzyme towards sphingolipid species is a unique feature of TbnSMase. Additionally, ESI-MS/MS analysis revealed previously uncharacterized activity towards lyso-phosphatidylcholine despite the enzyme's inability to degrade phosphatidylcholine. Collectively, these data underline the enzyme's importance in choline homoeostasis and the turnover of sphingolipids in T. brucei.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Feasibility of using Grindrâ„¢ to distribute HIV self-test kits to men who have sex with men in Los Angeles, California

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    Background: Our study aimed to determine if Grindr™ is an effective means of reaching high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV testing. In Los Angeles (LA), Black and Latino MSM have the highest rate of HIV infection, and Black MSM in LA are four-fold more likely than white MSM to not know they are infected with HIV. Those MSM are also major users of social networking apps. Grindr™ was used to provide access to free HIV self-testing. Methods: Free HIV self-test kits were advertised on Grindr™ from 13 October to 11 November 2014, consisting of 300 000 banner ads and three broadcast messages targeting a high-risk HIV population in LA. Eligible participants, Black or Latino, MSM and who were aged ≥18 years of age, were invited to take a survey 2 weeks after test delivery. Results: The website received 4389 unique visitors and 333 test requests, of which 247 (74%) were requests for mailed tests, 58 (17%) were for vouchers and 28 (8%) were for vending machines. Of the 125 participants, 74% reported at least one episode of condomless anal intercourse in the past 3 months, 29% last tested for HIV over 1 year ago and 9% had never been tested. Conclusions: It was feasible to use Grindr™ to distribute HIV self-test kits. Users are willing to provide personal information in exchange for a free self-test and found self-tests acceptable and easy to use. HIV self-testing promotion through apps has a high potential to reach untested high-risk populations
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