3 research outputs found

    Role of Grafting Density and Nitrile Functionalization on Gas Transport in Polymers with Side-Chain Porosity

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    This study details the enhancement of CO2 selectivity in ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) polymers that contain nitrile moieties and micropore-generating ladder side chains. A material, CN-ROMP homopolymer, with nitriles in the ladder side chains was originally targeted and synthesized; however, its low molecular weight and backbone rigidity precluded film formation. As a result, an alternative method was pursued wherein copolymers were synthesized using norbornene (N) and nitrile norbornene (NN). Herein, we report an investigation of the structure–property relationships of backbone functionalization and grafting density on the CO2 transport properties in these ROMP polymers. Nitrile-containing copolymers showed an increase in CO2/CH4 sorption selectivity and a concomitant increase in CO2/CH4 permselectivity when compared to the unfunctionalized (nitrile-free) analogues. The stability in CO2-rich environments is enhanced as grafting density of the rigid, pore-generating side chains increases and an apparent tunability of CO2 plasticization pressure was observed as a function of norbornene content. Lower loadings of norbornene resulted in higher plasticization pressure points. Gas permeability in the ROMP copolymers was found to correlate most strongly with the concentration of the ladder macromonomers in the polymer chain

    Phenothiazine-Based Polymer Cathode Materials with Ultrahigh Power Densities for Lithium Ion Batteries

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    Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) currently deliver the highest energy density of any known secondary electrochemical energy storage system. However, new cathode materials, which can deliver both high energy and power densities, are needed to improve LIBs. Herein, we report on the synthesis of a new organic-based redox-active material centered about phenothiazine and phenylenediamine units. Improved Coulombic efficiencies and greater capacity retention during cycling are observed through the copolymerization of a phenothiazine-based monomer that yields cross-linked materials. With this as the positive electrode in Li-coin cells, high specific capacities (150 mAh/g) are delivered at very positive operating voltages (2.8–4.3 V vs Li<sup>+</sup>/Li), yielding high energy densities. The material has low charge transfer resistance as verified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which contributes in delivering previously unseen power densities in coin cells for organic-based cathodes. Excellent retention of capacity (82%) is observed at ultrafast discharge rates (120 C)