59 research outputs found

    Molecular mechanisms underlying nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of actinin-4.

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    In addition to its well-known role as a crosslinker of actin filaments at focal-adhesion sites, actinin-4 is known to be localized to the nucleus. In this study, we reveal the molecular mechanism underlying nuclear localization of actinin-4 and its novel interactions with transcriptional regulators. We found that actinin-4 is imported into the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex in an importin-independent manner and is exported by the chromosome region maintenance-1 (CRM1)-dependent pathway. Nuclear actinin-4 levels were significantly increased in the late G2 phase of the cell cycle and were decreased in the G1 phase, suggesting that active release from the actin cytoskeleton was responsible for increased nuclear actinin-4 in late G2. Nuclear actinin-4 was found to interact with the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex. It also directs the expression of a subset of cell-cycle-related genes and interacts with the upstream-binding factor (UBF)-dependent rRNA transcriptional machinery in the M phase. These findings provide molecular mechanisms for both nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of proteins that do not contain a nuclear-localization signal and cell-cycle-dependent gene regulation that reflects morphological changes in the cytoskeleton

    Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Cytoskeletal Proteins: Molecular Mechanism and Biological Significance

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    Various nuclear functional complexes contain cytoskeletal proteins as regulatory subunits; for example, nuclear actin participates in transcriptional complexes, and actin-related proteins are integral to chromatin remodeling complexes. Nuclear complexes such as these are involved in both basal and adaptive nuclear functions. In addition to nuclear import via classical nuclear transport pathways or passive diffusion, some large cytoskeletal proteins spontaneously migrate into the nucleus in a karyopherin-independent manner. The balance of nucleocytoplasmic distribution of such proteins can be altered by several factors, such as import versus export, or capture and release by complexes. The resulting accumulation or depletion of the nuclear populations thereby enhances or attenuates their nuclear functions. We propose that such molecular dynamics constitute a form of cytoskeleton-modulated regulation of nuclear functions which is mediated by the translocation of cytoskeletal components in and out of the nucleus

    Redox-Sensitive Cysteines Confer Proximal Control of the Molecular Crowding Barrier in the Nuclear Pore

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    酸化ストレスが細胞の核膜機能を変える機構を解明 --環境に応じて分子の「混み具合」が変わる仕組み--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2020-12-16.The nuclear pore complex forms a highly crowded selective barrier with intrinsically disordered regions at the nuclear membrane to coordinate nucleocytoplasmic molecular communications. Although oxidative stress is known to alter the barrier function, the molecular mechanism underlying this adaptive control of the nuclear pore complex remains unknown. Here we uncover a systematic control of the crowding barrier within the nuclear pore in response to various redox environments. Direct measurements of the crowding states using a crowding-sensitive FRET (Förster resonance energy transfer) probe reveal specific roles of the nuclear pore subunits that adjust the degree of crowding in response to different redox conditions, by adaptively forming or disrupting redox-sensitive disulfide bonds. Relationships between crowding control and the barrier function of the nuclear pore are investigated by single-molecular fluorescence measurements of nuclear transport. Based on these findings, we propose a proximal control model of molecular crowding in vivo that is dynamically regulated at the molecular level

    In vivo analysis of protein crowding within the nuclear pore complex in interphase and mitosis

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    The central channel of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is occupied by non-structured polypeptides with a high content of Phe-Gly (FG) motifs. This protein-rich environment functions as an entropic barrier that prevents the passage of molecules, as well as the binding sites for karyopherins, to regulate macromolecular traffic between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. In this study, we expressed individual Nups fused with a crowding-sensitive probe (GimRET) to determine the spatial distribution of protein-rich domains within the central channel in vivo, and characterize the properties of the entropic barrier. Analyses of the probe signal revealed that the central channel contains two protein-rich domains at both the nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic peripheries, and a less-crowded central cavity. Karyopherins and other soluble proteins are not the constituents of the protein-rich domains. The time-lapse observation of the post-mitotic reassembly process also revealed how individual protein-rich domains are constructed by a sequential assembly of nucleoporins

    Synthetic RNA-protein complex shaped like an equilateral triangle.

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    Synthetic nanostructures consisting of biomacromolecules such as nucleic acids have been constructed using bottom-up approaches. In particular, Watson-Crick base pairing has been used to construct a variety of two- and three-dimensional DNA nanostructures. Here, we show that RNA and the ribosomal protein L7Ae can form a nanostructure shaped like an equilateral triangle that consists of three proteins bound to an RNA scaffold. The construction of the complex relies on the proteins binding to kink-turn (K-turn) motifs in the RNA, which allows the RNA to bend by ∼ 60° at three positions to form a triangle. Functional RNA-protein complexes constructed with this approach could have applications in nanomedicine and synthetic biology

    Viral RNA recognition by LGP2 and MDA5, and activation of signaling through step-by-step conformational changes

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    細胞内のウイルスを認識する蛋白質の仕組みを解明 --ウイルスから我々の体を守る影のヒーロー--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2020-12-04.Cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) proteins in mammalian cells recognize viral RNA and initiate an antiviral response that results in IFN-β induction. Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) forms fibers along viral dsRNA and propagates an antiviral response via a signaling domain, the tandem CARD. The most enigmatic RLR, laboratory of genetics and physiology (LGP2), lacks the signaling domain but functions in viral sensing through cooperation with MDA5. However, it remains unclear how LGP2 coordinates fiber formation and subsequent MDA5 activation. We utilized biochemical and biophysical approaches to observe fiber formation and the conformation of MDA5. LGP2 facilitated MDA5 fiber assembly. LGP2 was incorporated into the fibers with an average inter-molecular distance of 32 nm, suggesting the formation of hetero-oligomers with MDA5. Furthermore, limited protease digestion revealed that LGP2 induces significant conformational changes on MDA5, promoting exposure of its CARDs. Although the fibers were efficiently dissociated by ATP hydrolysis, MDA5 maintained its active conformation to participate in downstream signaling. Our study demonstrated the coordinated actions of LGP2 and MDA5, where LGP2 acts as an MDA5 nucleator and requisite partner in the conversion of MDA5 to an active conformation. We revealed a mechanistic basis for LGP2-mediated regulation of MDA5 antiviral innate immune responses

    Opposing role of condensin hinge against replication protein A in mitosis and interphase through promoting DNA annealing

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    Condensin is required for chromosome dynamics and diverse DNA metabolism. How condensin works, however, is not well understood. Condensin contains two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) subunits with the terminal globular domains connected to coiled-coil that is interrupted by the central hinge. Heterotrimeric non-SMC subunits regulate SMC. We identified a novel fission yeast SMC hinge mutant, cut14-Y1, which displayed defects in DNA damage repair and chromosome segregation. It contains an amino acid substitution at a conserved hinge residue of Cut14/SMC2, resulting in diminished DNA binding and annealing. A replication protein A mutant, ssb1-418, greatly alleviated the repair and mitotic defects of cut14-Y1. Ssb1 protein formed nucleolar foci in cut14-Y1 cells, but the number of foci was diminished in cut14-Y1 ssb1-418 double mutants. Consistent with the above results, Ssb1 protein bound to single-strand DNA was removed by condensin or the SMC dimer through DNA reannealing in vitro. Similarly, RNA hybridized to DNA may be removed by the SMC dimer. Thus, condensin may wind up DNA strands to unload chromosomal components after DNA repair and prior to mitosis. We show that 16 suppressor mutations of cut14-Y1 were all mapped within the hinge domain, which surrounded the original L543 mutation site

    Nuclear import receptors are recruited by FG-nucleoporins to rescue hallmarks of TDP-43 proteinopathy

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    Background: Cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a hallmark of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) disease spectrum, causing both nuclear loss-of-function and cytoplasmic toxic gain-of-function phenotypes. While TDP-43 proteinopathy has been associated with defects in nucleocytoplasmic transport, this process is still poorly understood. Here we study the role of karyopherin-β1 (KPNB1) and other nuclear import receptors in regulating TDP-43 pathology. Methods: We used immunostaining, immunoprecipitation, biochemical and toxicity assays in cell lines, primary neuron and organotypic mouse brain slice cultures, to determine the impact of KPNB1 on the solubility, localization, and toxicity of pathological TDP-43 constructs. Postmortem patient brain and spinal cord tissue was stained to assess KPNB1 colocalization with TDP-43 inclusions. Turbidity assays were employed to study the dissolution and prevention of aggregation of recombinant TDP-43 fibrils in vitro. Fly models of TDP-43 proteinopathy were used to determine the effect of KPNB1 on their neurodegenerative phenotype in vivo. Results: We discovered that several members of the nuclear import receptor protein family can reduce the formation of pathological TDP-43 aggregates. Using KPNB1 as a model, we found that its activity depends on the prion-like C-terminal region of TDP-43, which mediates the co-aggregation with phenylalanine and glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups) such as Nup62. KPNB1 is recruited into these co-aggregates where it acts as a molecular chaperone that reverses aberrant phase transition of Nup62 and TDP-43. These findings are supported by the discovery that Nup62 and KPNB1 are also sequestered into pathological TDP-43 aggregates in ALS/FTD postmortem CNS tissue, and by the identification of the fly ortholog of KPNB1 as a strong protective modifier in Drosophila models of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Our results show that KPNB1 can rescue all hallmarks of TDP-43 pathology, by restoring its solubility and nuclear localization, and reducing neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of ALS/FTD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a novel NLS-independent mechanism where, analogous to its canonical role in dissolving the diffusion barrier formed by FG-Nups in the nuclear pore, KPNB1 is recruited into TDP-43/FG-Nup co-aggregates present in TDP-43 proteinopathies and therapeutically reverses their deleterious phase transition and mislocalization, mitigating neurodegeneration. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
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