609 research outputs found

    Comb-rooted multi-channel synthesis of ultra-narrow optical frequencies of few Hz linewidth

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    We report a multi-channel optical frequency synthesizer developed to generate extremely stable continuous wave lasers directly out of the optical comb of an Er-doped fiber oscillator. Being stabilized to a high-finesse cavity with a fractional frequency stability of 3.8×10153.8\times10^{-15} at 0.1 s, the comb-rooted synthesizer produces multiple optical frequencies of ultra-narrow linewidth of 1.0 Hz at 1 s concurrently with an output power of tens of mW per each channel. Diode-based stimulated emission by injection locking is a key mechanism that allows comb frequency modes to sprout up with sufficient power amplification but no loss of original comb frequency stability. Channel frequencies are individually selectable with a 0.1 GHz increment over the entire comb bandwidth spanning 4.25 THz around a 1550 nm center wavelength. A series of out-of-loop test results is discussed to demonstrate that the synthesizer is able to provide stable optical frequencies with the potential for advancing diverse ultra-precision applications such as optical clocks comparison, atomic line spectroscopy, photonic microwaves generation, and coherent optical telecommunications.Comment: 19 pages, 4 figure

    Could Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Test be Useful in Predicting Inhaled Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Chronic Cough? A Systematic Review

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    © 2016 Background Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a safe and convenient test for assessing T H 2 airway inflammation, which is potentially useful in the management of patients with chronic cough. Objective To summarize the current evidence on the diagnostic usefulness of FENO for predicting inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) responsiveness in patients with chronic cough. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify articles published in peer-reviewed journals up to February 2015, without language restriction. We included studies that reported the usefulness of FENO (index test) for predicting ICS responsiveness (reference standard) in patients with chronic cough (target condition). The data were extracted to construct a 2 × 2 accuracy table. Study quality was assessed with Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. Results We identified 5 original studies (2 prospective and 3 retrospective studies). We identified considerable heterogeneities in study design and outcome definitions, and thus were unable to perform a meta-analysis. The proportion of ICS responders ranged from 44% to 59%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged from 53% to 90%, and from 63% to 97%, respectively. The reported area under the curve ranged from abou t 0.60 to 0.87; however, studies with a prospective design and a lower prevalence of asthma had lower area under the curve values. None measured placebo effects or objective cough frequency. Conclusions We did not find strong evidence to support the use of FENO tests for predicting ICS responsiveness in chronic cough. Further studies need to have a randomized, placebo-controlled design, and should use validated measurement tools for cough. Standardization would facilitate the development of clinical evidence

    Aerodynamic Shape Optimization using Overset Mesh Technique for Multiple Body Aircraft Geometries

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    A new design approach for a delicate treatment of complex geometries such as wing/body configuration is arranged using overset mesh technique under large scale computing environment. For the in-depth study of the flow physics and highly accurate design, several special overlapped structured blocks such as collar grid, tip-cap grid, and etc. which are commonly used in refined drag prediction are adopted to consider the applicability of the design code to practical problems. Various pre- and post-processing techniques for overset flow analysis and sensitivity analysis are devised or implemented to adapt overset mesh technique to the design optimization problem based on Gradient Based Optimization Method (GBOM). In the pre-processing, the convergence characteristics of the flow solver and sensitivity analysis are improved by overlap optimization method. Moreover, a new post-processing method, Spline-Boundary Intersecting Grid (S-BIG) scheme, is proposed by considering the ratio of cell area for more refined prediction of aerodynamic coefficients and convenient evaluation of sensitivities under parallel computing environment. For the sensitivity analysis, adjoint formulations for overset boundary conditions are implemented into the fully hand-differentiated sensitivity analysis code. A smooth geometric modification on the overlapped surface boundaries and evaluation of grid sensitivities can be performed by mapping from planform coordinate to the surface meshes with Hicks-Henne function. Careful design works for the drag minimization problem of a transonic wing and a wing/body configuration are performed using the newly-developed and -applied overset mesh techniques. And the design results from conventional design problem demonstrate the capability of the present design approach successfully.The authors appreciate financial support by the Brain Korea-21 Project for the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Research at Seoul National University and by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (Grant R01-2005-000-10059-0)

    Morphology Transformation of Foldamer Assemblies Triggered by Single Oxygen Atom on Critical Residue Switch

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    The synthesis of morphologically well-defined peptidic materials via self-assembly is challenging but demanding for biocompatible functional materials. Moreover, switching morphology from a given shape to other predictable forms by molecular modification of the identical building block is an even more complicated subject because the self-assembly of flexible peptides is prone to diverge upon subtle structural change. To accomplish controllable morphology transformation, systematic self-assembly studies are performed using congener short β-peptide foldamers to find a minimal structural change that alters the self-assembled morphology. Introduction of oxygen-containing β-amino acid (ATFC) for subtle electronic perturbation on hydrophobic foldamer induces a previously inaccessible solid-state conformational split to generate the most susceptible modification site for morphology transformation of the foldamer assemblies. The site-dependent morphological switching power of ATFC is further demonstrated by dual substitution experiments and proven by crystallographic analyses. Stepwise morphology transformation is shown by modifying an identical foldamer scaffold. This study will guide in designing peptidic molecules from scratch to create complex and biofunctional assemblies with nonspherical shapes

    Perspective of mesenchymal transformation in glioblastoma.

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    Despite aggressive multimodal treatment, glioblastoma (GBM), a grade IV primary brain tumor, still portends a poor prognosis with a median overall survival of 12-16 months. The complexity of GBM treatment mainly lies in the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity, which largely contributes to the treatment-refractory and recurrent nature of GBM. By paving the road towards the development of personalized medicine for GBM patients, the cancer genome atlas classification scheme of GBM into distinct transcriptional subtypes has been considered an invaluable approach to overcoming this heterogeneity. Among the identified transcriptional subtypes, the mesenchymal subtype has been found associated with more aggressive, invasive, angiogenic, hypoxic, necrotic, inflammatory, and multitherapy-resistant features than other transcriptional subtypes. Accordingly, mesenchymal GBM patients were found to exhibit worse prognosis than other subtypes when patients with high transcriptional heterogeneity were excluded. Furthermore, identification of the master mesenchymal regulators and their downstream signaling pathways has not only increased our understanding of the complex regulatory transcriptional networks of mesenchymal GBM, but also has generated a list of potent inhibitors for clinical trials. Importantly, the mesenchymal transition of GBM has been found to be tightly associated with treatment-induced phenotypic changes in recurrence. Together, these findings indicate that elucidating the governing and plastic transcriptomic natures of mesenchymal GBM is critical in order to develop novel and selective therapeutic strategies that can improve both patient care and clinical outcomes. Thus, the focus of our review will be on the recent advances in the understanding of the transcriptome of mesenchymal GBM and discuss microenvironmental, metabolic, and treatment-related factors as critical components through which the mesenchymal signature may be acquired. We also take into consideration the transcriptomic plasticity of GBM to discuss the future perspectives in employing selective therapeutic strategies against mesenchymal GBM

    Changes in Fire Weather Climatology Under 1.5 ◦C and 2.0 ◦C Warming

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    The 2015 Paris Agreement led to a number of studies that assessed the impact of the 1.5 ◦C and 2.0 ◦C increases in global temperature over preindustrial levels. However, those assessments have not actively investigated the impact of these levels of warming on fire weather. In view of a recent series of high-profile wildfire events worldwide, we access fire weather sensitivity based on a set of multi-model large ensemble climate simulations for these low-emission scenarios. The results indicate that the half degree difference between these two thresholds may lead to a significantly increased hazard of wildfire in certain parts of the world, particularly the Amazon, African savanna and Mediterranean. Although further experiments focused on human land use are needed to depict future fire activity, considering that rising temperatures are the most influential factor in augmenting the danger of fire weather, limiting global warming to 1.5 ◦C would alleviate some risk in these parts of the world