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    Discovery of Novel Pazopanib-Based HDAC and VEGFR Dual Inhibitors Targeting Cancer Epigenetics and Angiogenesis Simultaneously

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    Herein a novel series of pazopanib hybrids as polypharmacological antitumor agents were developed based on the crosstalk between histone deacetylases (HDACs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. Among them, one <i>ortho</i>-aminoanilide <b>6d</b> and one hydroxamic acid <b>13f</b> exhibited considerable total HDACs and VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities. The HDAC inhibitory activities endowed <b>6d</b> and <b>13f</b> with potent antiproliferative activities, which was not observed in the approved VEGFR inhibitor pazopanib. Compounds <b>6d</b> and <b>13f</b> possessed comparable HDAC isoform selectivity profiles to the clinical class I HDAC inhibitor MS-275 and the approved pan-HDAC inhibitor SAHA, respectively. <b>6d</b> and <b>13f</b> also exhibited uncompromised multiple tyrosine kinases inhibitory activities relative to pazopanib. The intracellular dual inhibition to HDAC and VEGFR of <b>6d</b> and <b>13f</b> was validated by Western blot analysis. In both HUVECs tube formation assay and rat thoracic aorta rings assay, <b>6d</b> and <b>13f</b> showed comparable antiangiogenic potencies to pazopanib. What’s more, <b>6d</b> possessed desirable pharmacokinetic profiles with the oral bioavailability of 72% in SD rats and considerable in vivo antitumor efficacy in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) xenograft model