44 research outputs found

    Coffee-Enset-Livestock Interaction for sustainable livelihood in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia

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    The coffee growing areas of Sidama, the midlands, are one of the densely populated areas in Ethiopia, with a population density of 500 persons per arable land. Coffee serves as the major cash source to the farm household, which expends the cash to its different uses one of which is asset formation through the purchase of livestock. Livestock of different type are reared with small herd size in the area. The population pressure brought land to be the most limiting production constraint. Due to its limitation the available land is mainly allocated to the major staple food of the area, Enset (Ensete ventricosum). This plant is everything to the farmer: food, feed, construction material etc. The food use of Enset is very significant, because it supports large population size, however it is deficient in fat, protein and energy. Enset covers the larger share of the feed use and it is a good feed sources because the feed part is rich in protein. This paper tried to address how the major enterprises of the system coffee, enset and livestock can be intensified so as to ensure sustainable livelihood in the farming system

    Complementarity between Irrigation and Fertilizer Technologies - A Justification for Increased Irrigation Investment in the Less-Favored Areas of SSA

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    There is a downward spiral of declining soil fertility, low crop yield and increasing poverty in the less-favored areas of SSA. The semi-arid tropics of northern Ghana share this episode. The soils in this part of the country are naturally less endowed, have little organic matter content and farmers use very little inorganic fertilizer. Existing studies indicate that the erratic nature of rainfall in the area increases risk and constrains farmers' investment on inorganic fertilizer. However, agronomic studies suggest that promotion of sustainable use of inorganic fertilizer is indispensable at least in the short to medium term to break the downward spiral. Therefore, promoting sustainable use of inorganic fertilizer use remains to be a policy challenge. This paper argues that in spite of observed disinvestment on irrigation both by governments and donors there is significant complementarity between irrigation and inorganic fertilizer use in the less-favored areas of northern Ghana. This implies that increased irrigation investment in the semi-arid tropics of SSA can be justified given its importance in reducing rainfall risk and boosting inorganic fertilizer use.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q15, Q16, Q18,

    Mapping inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries, 2000‚Äď2018

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    Abstract: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)‚ÄĒgiving infants only breast-milk for the first 6 months of life‚ÄĒis a component of optimal breastfeeding practices effective in preventing child morbidity and mortality. EBF practices are known to vary by population and comparable subnational estimates of prevalence and progress across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are required for planning policy and interventions. Here we present a geospatial analysis of EBF prevalence estimates from 2000 to 2018 across 94 LMICs mapped to policy-relevant administrative units (for example, districts), quantify subnational inequalities and their changes over time, and estimate probabilities of meeting the World Health Organization‚Äôs Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) of ‚Č•70% EBF prevalence by 2030. While six LMICs are projected to meet the WHO GNT of ‚Č•70% EBF prevalence at a national scale, only three are predicted to meet the target in all their district-level units by 2030

    Mapping inequalities in exclusive breastfeeding in low- and middle-income countries, 2000‚Äď2018

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    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF)-giving infants only breast-milk for the first 6 months of life-is a component of optimal breastfeeding practices effective in preventing child morbidity and mortality. EBF practices are known to vary by population and comparable subnational estimates of prevalence and progress across low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are required for planning policy and interventions. Here we present a geospatial analysis of EBF prevalence estimates from 2000 to 2018 across 94 LMICs mapped to policy-relevant administrative units (for example, districts), quantify subnational inequalities and their changes over time, and estimate probabilities of meeting the World Health Organization's Global Nutrition Target (WHO GNT) of ‚Č•70% EBF prevalence by 2030. While six LMICs are projected to meet the WHO GNT of ‚Č•70% EBF prevalence at a national scale, only three are predicted to meet the target in all their district-level units by 2030.This work was primarily supported by grant no. OPP1132415 from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Co-authors used by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (E.G.P. and R.R.3) provided feedback on initial maps and drafts of this manuscript. L.G.A. has received support from Coordena√ß√£o de Aperfei√ßoamento de Pessoal de N√≠vel Superior, Brasil (CAPES), C√≥digo de Financiamento 001 and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient√≠fico e Tecnol√≥gico (CNPq) (grant nos. 404710/2018-2 and 310797/2019-5). O.O.Adetokunboh acknowledges the National Research Foundation, Department of Science and Innovation and South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis. M.Ausloos, A.Pana and C.H. are partially supported by a grant from the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project no. PN-III-P4-ID-PCCF-2016-0084. P.C.B. would like to acknowledge the support of F. Alam and A. Hussain. T.W.B. was supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through the Alexander von Humboldt Professor award, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. K.Deribe is supported by the Wellcome Trust (grant no. 201900/Z/16/Z) as part of his international intermediate fellowship. C.H. and A.Pana are partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project no. PN-III-P2-2.1-SOL-2020-2-0351. B.Hwang is partially supported by China Medical University (CMU109-MF-63), Taichung, Taiwan. M.Khan acknowledges Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam University for their support. A.M.K. acknowledges the other collaborators and the corresponding author. Y.K. was supported by the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia (grant no. XMUMRF/2020-C6/ITM/0004). K.Krishan is supported by a DST PURSE grant and UGC Centre of Advanced Study (CAS II) awarded to the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. M.Kumar would like to acknowledge FIC/NIH K43 TW010716-03. I.L. is a member of the Sistema Nacional de Investigaci√≥n (SNI), which is supported by the Secretar√≠a Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n (SENACYT), Panam√°. M.L. was supported by China Medical University, Taiwan (CMU109-N-22 and CMU109-MF-118). W.M. is currently a programme analyst in Population and Development at the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Country Office in Peru, which does not necessarily endorses this study. D.E.N. acknowledges Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council. G.C.P. is supported by an NHMRC research fellowship. P.Rathi acknowledges support from Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India. Ramu Rawat acknowledges the support of the GBD Secretariat for supporting the reviewing and collaboration of this paper. B.R. acknowledges support from Manipal College of Health Professions, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal. A.Ribeiro was supported by National Funds through FCT, under the programme of ‚ÄėStimulus of Scientific Employment‚ÄĒIndividual Support‚Äô within the contract no. info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/FCT/CEEC IND 2018/CEECIND/02386/2018/CP1538/CT0001/PT. S.Sajadi acknowledges colleagues at Global Burden of Diseases and Local Burden of Disease. A.M.S. acknowledges the support from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program. F.S. was supported by the Shenzhen Science and Technology Program (grant no. KQTD20190929172835662). A.Sheikh is supported by Health Data Research UK. B.K.S. acknowledges Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal for all the academic support. B.U. acknowledges support from Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal. C.S.W. is supported by the South African Medical Research Council. Y.Z. was supported by Science and Technology Research Project of Hubei Provincial Department of Education (grant no. Q20201104) and Outstanding Young and Middle-aged Technology Innovation Team Project of Hubei Provincial Department of Education (grant no. T2020003). The funders of the study had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. The corresponding author had full access to all the data in the study and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. All maps presented in this study are generated by the authors and no permissions are required to publish them

    Mapping geographical inequalities in access to drinking water and sanitation facilities in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17

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    Background: Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventing disease and improving human wellbeing. Comprehensive, high-resolution estimates are important to inform progress towards achieving this goal. We aimed to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of access to drinking water and sanitation facilities. Methods: We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from 600 sources across more than 88 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to estimate access to drinking water and sanitation facilities on continuous continent-wide surfaces from 2000 to 2017, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. We estimated mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subcategories of facilities for drinking water (piped water on or off premises, other improved facilities, unimproved, and surface water) and sanitation facilities (septic or sewer sanitation, other improved, unimproved, and open defecation) with use of ordinal regression. We also estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths in children younger than 5 years attributed to unsafe facilities and estimated deaths that were averted by increased access to safe facilities in 2017, and analysed geographical inequality in access within LMICs. Findings: Across LMICs, access to both piped water and improved water overall increased between 2000 and 2017, with progress varying spatially. For piped water, the safest water facility type, access increased from 40¬∑0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 39¬∑4‚Äď40¬∑7) to 50¬∑3% (50¬∑0‚Äď50¬∑5), but was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to piped water was mostly concentrated in urban centres. Access to both sewer or septic sanitation and improved sanitation overall also increased across all LMICs during the study period. For sewer or septic sanitation, access was 46¬∑3% (95% UI 46¬∑1‚Äď46¬∑5) in 2017, compared with 28¬∑7% (28¬∑5‚Äď29¬∑0) in 2000. Although some units improved access to the safest drinking water or sanitation facilities since 2000, a large absolute number of people continued to not have access in several units with high access to such facilities (>80%) in 2017. More than 253 000 people did not have access to sewer or septic sanitation facilities in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe, despite 88¬∑6% (95% UI 87¬∑2‚Äď89¬∑7) access overall. Many units were able to transition from the least safe facilities in 2000 to safe facilities by 2017; for units in which populations primarily practised open defecation in 2000, 686 (95% UI 664‚Äď711) of the 1830 (1797‚Äď1863) units transitioned to the use of improved sanitation. Geographical disparities in access to improved water across units decreased in 76¬∑1% (95% UI 71¬∑6‚Äď80¬∑7) of countries from 2000 to 2017, and in 53¬∑9% (50¬∑6‚Äď59¬∑6) of countries for access to improved sanitation, but remained evident subnationally in most countries in 2017. Interpretation: Our estimates, combined with geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden, identify where efforts to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are most needed. By highlighting areas with successful approaches or in need of targeted interventions, our estimates can enable precision public health to effectively progress towards universal access to safe water and sanitation

    Mapping local patterns of childhood overweight and wasting in low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017

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    A double burden of malnutrition occurs when individuals, household members or communities experience both undernutrition and overweight. Here, we show geospatial estimates of overweight and wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age in 105 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) from 2000 to 2017 and aggregate these to policy-relevant administrative units. Wasting decreased overall across LMICs between 2000 and 2017, from 8.4% (62.3 (55.1‚Äď70.8) million) to 6.4% (58.3 (47.6‚Äď70.7) million), but is predicted to remain above the World Health Organization‚Äôs Global Nutrition Target of <5% in over half of LMICs by 2025. Prevalence of overweight increased from 5.2% (30 (22.8‚Äď38.5) million) in 2000 to 6.0% (55.5 (44.8‚Äď67.9) million) children aged under 5 years in 2017. Areas most affected by double burden of malnutrition were located in Indonesia, Thailand, southeastern China, Botswana, Cameroon and central Nigeria. Our estimates provide a new perspective to researchers, policy makers and public health agencies in their efforts to address this global childhood syndemic

    Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980-2017 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017