637 research outputs found

    Estudio de la fiabilidad de las tipografías

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    Castell√†: La elecci√≥n de una buena tipograf√≠a es de especial importancia para aquellas personas que tengan baja visi√≥n. El uso de una tipograf√≠a con un buen nivel de fiabilidad, marca la diferencia en la legibilidad y comprensi√≥n del texto. Objetivos: Considerando la importancia que tiene el uso de una tipograf√≠a fiable, en el presente trabajo buscamos cumplir con dos objetivos: el estudio de la fiabilidad de diferentes tipograf√≠as mediante 3 m√©todos de an√°lisis y, el an√°lisis de la viabilidad y justificaci√≥n del uso del √≠ndice de poder Shapley-Shubik como una nueva propuesta para el c√°lculo del √≠ndice de fiabilidad tipogr√°fica. M√©todo: Se trabaja con las respuestas de una poblaci√≥n muestra de 31 observadores de 21,47 ¬Ī 1,7 a√Īos, ante la presentaci√≥n aleatoria de letras para cada una de las 4 tipograf√≠as estudiadas (Georgia, Helvetica, Roboto y Optotipica). Todos los observadores presentan una agudeza visual decimal Landolt mayor de 0,8. Las pruebas se realizan siempre bajo las mismas condiciones (ISO 8596:2017). Para cada paciente, se muestran dos veces cada tipograf√≠a, las 26 letras de abecedario ingl√©s en un orden de aparici√≥n aleatoria. Las presentaciones se muestran para una agudeza visual en la que el observador comete un 25-50% de error en la lectura de letras. A partir de los resultados recopilados, se estudia la fiabilidad de cada tipograf√≠a por medio de tres m√©todos de an√°lisis diferentes: las frecuencias relativas corregidas (Frc), los √≠ndices de poder Shapley-Shubik (SSPI) y las matrices de confusi√≥n (F-score). Posteriormente, con los resultados obtenidos, se lleva a cabo un an√°lisis estad√≠stico inferencial y descriptivo, valorando el uso de SSPI frente al resto de m√©todos. Se ejecutan las pruebas t pareada, igualdad de varianzas y la correlaci√≥n de Spearman. Conclusiones: De las tipograf√≠as estudiadas, Helvetica es la que presenta una mayor fiabilidad tipogr√°fica en las may√ļsculas y en las min√ļsculas tenemos a la Optotipica. La valoraci√≥n del uso de SSPI para el an√°lisis de la fiabilidad tipogr√°fica es satisfactoria, ofreci√©ndonos unos valores diferentes y ligeramente superiores, mostrando una alta consistencia con el m√©todo de las Frc. Catal√†: L'elecci√≥ d'una bona tipografia √©s d'especial import√†ncia per a aquelles persones que tenen de baixa visi√≥. L'√ļs d'una tipografia amb un bon nivell de fiabilitat, marca la difer√®ncia en la llegibilitat i comprensi√≥ del text. Objectius: Considerant la import√†ncia que t√© l'√ļs d'una tipografia fiable, en el present treball busquem complir amb dos objectius: l'estudi de la fiabilitat de diferents tipografies mitjan√ßant 3 m√®todes d'an√†lisis i, l'an√†lisi de la viabilitat i justificaci√≥ de l'√ļs de l'√≠ndex de poder Shapley- Shubik com una nova proposta per al c√†lcul de l'√≠ndex de fiabilitat tipogr√†fica. M√®tode: Es treballa amb les respostes d'una poblaci√≥ mostra de 31 observadors de 21,47 ¬Ī 1,7 anys, davant la presentaci√≥ aleat√≤ria de lletres per a cadascuna de les 4 tipografies estudiades (Ge√≤rgia, Helvetica, Roboto i Optotipica). Tots els observadors presenten una agudesa visual decimal Landolt major de 0,8. Les proves es realitzen sempre sota les mateixes condicions (ISO 8596:2017). Per a cada pacient, es mostren dues vegades cada tipografia, les 26 lletres d'abecedari angl√®s en un ordre d'aparici√≥ aleat√≤ria. Les presentacions es mostren per a una agudesa visual en la qual l'observador comet un 25-50% d'error en la lectura de lletres. A partir dels resultats recopilats, s'estudia la fiabilitat de cada tipografia per mitj√† de tres m√®todes d'an√†lisis diferents: les freq√ľ√®ncies relatives corregides (Frc), els √≠ndexs de poder Shapley-Shubik (SSPI) i les matrius de confusi√≥ (F-score). Posteriorment, amb els resultats obtinguts, es duu a terme una an√†lisi estad√≠stica inferencial i descriptiu, valorant l'√ļs de SSPI enfront de la resta de m√®todes. S'executen les proves t apariada, igualtat de vari√†ncies i la correlaci√≥ de Spearman. Conclusions: De les tipografies estudiades, Helvetica √©s la que presenta una major fiabilitat tipogr√†fica en les maj√ļscules i en les min√ļscules tenim a la Optotipica. La valoraci√≥ de l'√ļs de SSPI per a l'an√†lisi de la fiabilitat tipogr√†fica √©s satisfact√≤ria, oferint-nos uns valors diferents i lleugerament superiors, mostrant una alta consist√®ncia amb el m√®tode de les Frc. Angl√®s: The selection of an appropriate typography holds significant importance for individuals with low vision. The utilization of a reliable typeface plays a pivotal role in enhancing the legibility and comprehensibility of text. Purpose: Considering the importance of using a reliable typeface, this study aims to achieve two objectives: the examination of the reliability of different typefaces through three methods of analysis and the analysis of the feasibility and justification of using the Shapley-Shubik Power Index as a new proposal for a typographic reliability index. Method: The responses of a sample population of 31 observers, of 21,47 ¬Ī 1,7 y.o, were collected. They were presented with random letters in each of the four studied typefaces (Georgia, Helvetica, Roboto, and Optotipica). All observers have a Landolt decimal visual acuity greater than 0.8. The tests were always conducted under the same conditions (ISO 8596:2017). For each participant, each typeface was shown twice, with the 26 letters of the English alphabet appearing in random order. The presentations were shown at a visual acuity level where the observer made a 25-50% error in letter reading. Based on the collected results, the reliability of each typeface was studied using three different analysis methods: corrected relative frequencies (Frc), Shapley-Shubik Power Index (SSPI), and confusion matrices (F-score). Subsequently, with the obtained results, an inferential and descriptive statistical analysis was carried out, evaluating the use of SSPI compared to the other methods. Paired t-tests, equality of variances, and Spearman correlation were performed. Conclusions: Among the studied typefaces, Helvetica yielded the highest typographic reliability in uppercase letters, while Optotipica performs best in lowercase letters. The evaluation of using SSPI for typographic reliability analysis is satisfactory, providing slightly higher and different values, showing a high consistency with the Frc method

    Improved antibacterial performance using hydrogel-immobilized lysozyme as a catalyst in water

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    Silver nanoparticle-based catalysts are used extensively to kill bacteria in drinking water treatment. However secondary contamination and their high cost require scientists to seek alternatives with non-toxicity, high activity and low cost. In this article, we develop a new hydrogel-immobilized lysozyme (h-lysozyme) that shows excellent antibacterial performance, including high activity duration of up to 55 days, inhibition efficiency as high as 99.4%, good recycling capability of up to 11 cycles, a wide temperature window and extremely low concentration. The immobilized lysozyme displayed greatly improved bacterial inhibition with both Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive B. subtilis, which enables broad antibacterial applications in various water systems. In parallel, the non-toxic structure and high stability of the hlysozyme without additional contamination make it a promising alternative to nanoparticle catalysts fur use in drinking water purification

    A Polynomial Kernel for Diamond-Free Editing

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    Given a fixed graph H, the H-free editing problem asks whether we can edit at most k edges to make a graph contain no induced copy of H. We obtain a polynomial kernel for this problem when H is a diamond. The incompressibility dichotomy for H being a 3-connected graph and the classical complexity dichotomy suggest that except for H being a complete/empty graph, H-free editing problems admit polynomial kernels only for a few small graphs H. Therefore, we believe that our result is an essential step toward a complete dichotomy on the compressibility of H-free editing. Additionally, we give a cubic-vertex kernel for the diamond-free edge deletion problem, which is far simpler than the previous kernel of the same size for the problem

    A Language Agent for Autonomous Driving

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    Human-level driving is an ultimate goal of autonomous driving. Conventional approaches formulate autonomous driving as a perception-prediction-planning framework, yet their systems do not capitalize on the inherent reasoning ability and experiential knowledge of humans. In this paper, we propose a fundamental paradigm shift from current pipelines, exploiting Large Language Models (LLMs) as a cognitive agent to integrate human-like intelligence into autonomous driving systems. Our approach, termed Agent-Driver, transforms the traditional autonomous driving pipeline by introducing a versatile tool library accessible via function calls, a cognitive memory of common sense and experiential knowledge for decision-making, and a reasoning engine capable of chain-of-thought reasoning, task planning, motion planning, and self-reflection. Powered by LLMs, our Agent-Driver is endowed with intuitive common sense and robust reasoning capabilities, thus enabling a more nuanced, human-like approach to autonomous driving. We evaluate our approach on the large-scale nuScenes benchmark, and extensive experiments substantiate that our Agent-Driver significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art driving methods by a large margin. Our approach also demonstrates superior interpretability and few-shot learning ability to these methods. Code will be released.Comment: Project Page: https://usc-gvl.github.io/Agent-Driver
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