259 research outputs found

    Hyperon mixing and universal many-body repulsion in neutron stars

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    A multi-pomeron exchange potential (MPP) is proposed as a model for the universal many-body repulsion in baryonic systems on the basis of the Extended Soft Core (ESC) bryon-baryon interaction. The strength of MPP is determined by analyzing the nucleus-nucleus scattering with the G-matrix folding model. The interaction in ΛN\Lambda N channels is shown to reproduce well the experimental Λ\Lambda binding energies. The equation of state (EoS) in neutron matter with hyperon mixing is obtained including the MPP contribution, and mass-radius relations of neutron stars are derived. It is shown that the maximum mass can be larger than the observed one 2M2M_{\odot} even in the case of including hyperon mixing on the basis of model-parameters determined by terrestrial experiments

    Structure of the hadron-quark mixed phase in protoneutron stars

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    We study the hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of hot protoneutron stars, combining the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach for hadronic matter with the MIT bag model or the Dyson-Schwinger model for quark matter. We examine the structure of the mixed phase constructed according to different prescriptions for the phase transition, and the resulting consequences for stellar properties. We find important effects for the internal composition, but only very small influence on the global stellar properties.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Finite-size effects at the hadron-quark transition and heavy hybrid stars

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    We study the role of finite-size effects at the hadron-quark phase transition in a new hybrid equation of state constructed from an ab-initio Br\"uckner-Hartree-Fock equation of state with the realistic Bonn-B potential for the hadronic phase and a covariant non-local Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model for the quark phase. We construct static hybrid star sequences and find that our model can support stable hybrid stars with an onset of quark matter below 2M2 M_\odot and a maximum mass above 2.17M2.17 M_\odot in agreement with recent observations. If the finite-size effects are taken into account the core is composed of pure quark matter. Provided that the quark vector channel interaction is small, and the finite size effects are taken into account, quark matter appears at densities 2-3 times the nuclear saturation density. In that case the proton fraction in the hadronic phase remains below the value required by the onset of the direct URCA process, so that the early onset of quark matter shall affect on the rapid cooling of the star.Comment: version to match the one published in PR

    Neutrino Emission from Magnetized Proto-Neutron Stars in Relativistic Mean Field Theory

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    We make a perturbative calculation of neutrino scattering and absorption in hot and dense hyperonic neutron-star matter in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We find that the absorption cross-sections show a remarkable angular dependence in that the neutrino absorption strength is reduced in a direction parallel to the magnetic field and enhanced in the opposite direction. This asymmetry in the neutrino absorbtion can be as much as 2.2 % of the entire neutrino momentum for an interior magnetic field of \sim 2 x 10^{17} G. We estimate the pulsar kick velocities associated with this asymmetry in a fully relativistic mean-field theory formulation. We show that the kick velocities calculated here are comparable to observed pulsar velocities.Comment: arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1009.097

    The importance of the mixed phase in hybrid stars built with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

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    We investigate the structure of hybrid stars based on two different constructions: one is based on the Gibbs condition for phase coexistence and considers the existence of a mixed phase (MP), and the other is based on the Maxwell construction and no mixed phase is obtained. The hadron phase is described by the non-linear Walecka model (NLW) and the quark phase by the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (NJL). We conclude that the masses and radii obtained are model dependent but not significantly different for both constructions.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figures, 3 table

    Two Origins for the Gene Encoding α-Isopropylmalate Synthase in Fungi

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    BACKGROUND: The biosynthesis of leucine is a biochemical pathway common to prokaryotes, plants and fungi, but absent from humans and animals. The pathway is a proposed target for antimicrobial therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we identified the leuA gene encoding alpha-isopropylmalate synthase in the zygomycete fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus using a genetic mapping approach with crosses between wild type and leucine auxotrophic strains. To confirm the function of the gene, Phycomyces leuA was used to complement the auxotrophic phenotype exhibited by mutation of the leu3+ gene of the ascomycete fungus Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the leuA gene in Phycomyces, other zygomycetes, and the chytrids is more closely related to homologs in plants and photosynthetic bacteria than ascomycetes or basidiomycetes, and suggests that the Dikarya have acquired the gene more recently. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of leuA in Phycomyces adds to the growing body of evidence that some primary metabolic pathways or parts of them have arisen multiple times during the evolution of fungi, probably through horizontal gene transfer events
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