336 research outputs found

    The New Extended Family: The Experience of Parents and Children after Remarriage

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    During the past 2 decades, the nuclear family, the predominant family form in the United States, has appeared to be more ephemeral than was once imagined by social scientists. Historians and demographers have shown that this family form was not nearly so common in earlier times as was once thought (Cherlin, 1981; Hareven, 1978). Paradoxically the nuclear family (ironically, now referred to as the traditional family) was more common in 1950 than in 1850 because of high rates of mortality, illness, and economic uncertainty (Uhlenberg, 1974). Large numbers of people never married or never had children, and among those who did, the prospect of living a settled and secure life was much lower than is nostalgically recalled

    Analytic study on long wave transformation over a seamount with a pit

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    In this paper, an analytic solution is derived for linear long waves scattering over a submarine seamount landform with a pit. The seamount is axisymmetric with a pit on the top. The water depth is defined by a trinomial function in the radial direction. The governing linear shallow water equation for long waves is expressed in the polar coordination, which is solved through separation of variables. As the topography is axisymmetric, solutions can be written as Fourier-cosine series. Waves over the seamount are expressed using Frobenius series expansion, while the water surface elevation in the outer region is expressed as Fourier-Bessel series, and the final solution is obtained by matching them at the conjunction. The solution can be degenerated into the previous analytic solutions for waves propagation over an axisymmetric pit or a submerged hump by adjusting the topography parameters

    Safety and Efficacy of Biodegradable Drug-Eluting vs. Bare Metal Stents: A Meta-Analysis from Randomized Trials

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Biodegradable polymeric coatings have been proposed as a promising strategy to enhance biocompatibility and improve the delayed healing in the vessel. However, the efficacy and safety of biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) vs. bare metal stents (BMS) are unknown. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the outcomes of BP-DES vs. BMS.</p><p>Methods and Results</p><p>PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched for randomized clinical trials, until December 2013, that compared any of approved BP-DES and BMS. Efficacy endpoints were target-vessel revascularization (TVR), target-lesion revascularization (TLR) and in-stent late loss (ISLL). Safety endpoints were death, myocardial infarction (MI), definite stent thrombosis (DST). The meta-analysis included 7 RCTs with 2,409 patients. As compared with BMS, there was a significantly reduced TVR (OR [95% CI]β€Š=β€Š0.37 [0.28–0.50]), ISLL (OR [95% CI]β€Š=β€Šβˆ’0.41 [βˆ’0.48–0.34]) and TLR (OR [95% CI]β€Š=β€Š0.38 [0.27–0.52]) in BP-DES patients. However, there were no difference for safety outcomes between BP-DES and BMS.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>BP-DES is more effective in reducing ISLL, TVR and TLR, as safe as standard BMS with regard to death, ST and MI. Further large RCTs with long-term follow-up are warranted to better define the relative merits of BP-DES.</p></div

    Target Vessel, Stent Length and Stent Diameter of the included studies.

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    <p>Target Vessel, Stent Length and Stent Diameter of the included studies.</p

    Main characteristics of the included studies.

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    <p>Main characteristics of the included studies.</p

    Vessel Size and Lesion Length of the included studies.

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    <p>Vessel Size and Lesion Length of the included studies.</p

    Individual and summary odds ratios for definite stent thrombosis (DST) in patients treated with BP-DES vs. BMS.

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    <p>Individual and summary odds ratios for definite stent thrombosis (DST) in patients treated with BP-DES vs. BMS.</p

    Flow diagram of the review process.

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    <p>Flow diagram of the review process.</p

    Individual and summary odds ratios for myocardial infarction in patients treated with BP-DES vs. BMS.

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    <p>Individual and summary odds ratios for myocardial infarction in patients treated with BP-DES vs. BMS.</p

    Standardized mean difference (SMD) for ISLL in patients treated with BP-DES vs. BMS.

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    <p>Standardized mean difference (SMD) for ISLL in patients treated with BP-DES vs. BMS.</p
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