74 research outputs found

    Median-joining network of mtDNA haplotypes of <i>Pachyhynobius shangchengensis</i> on the Mount Dabieshan in China.

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    <p>Each haplotype is represented by a circle, with the area of the circle proportional to its frequency. Samples from Clade A to D were indicated by different colours. Median vector (mv1-mv14) is indicated by black.</p

    Distributions of <i>Pachyhynobius shangchengensis</i>.

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    <p>Sampling sites for the present study are marked by red triangles and coded names (<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0078064#pone-0078064-t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>). </p

    Phylogram of <i>Pachyhynobius shangchengensis</i> mtDNA haplotypes obtained with Bayesian in MrBayes, rooted with two sequences from <i>Hynobius chinensis</i> and <i>Hynobius guabangshanensis</i>.

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    <p>MtDNA clades and estimated age (in MY) obtained with BEAST were indicated. Numbers above nodes, Bayesian posterior probability; numbers below nodes, estimated age and 95% confidence intervals (shown in parenthesis). </p

    A Bayesian skyline plot derived from an alignment of mtDNA sequences of <i>Pachyhynobius shangchengensis</i> in China.

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    <p>The X-axis is in units of million years in the past and the Y-axis is Ne×μ (effective population size × mutation rate per site per generation). The median estimates are shown as thick solid lines, and the 95% HPD limits are shown by the gray areas.</p

    Raspberrylike SiO<sub>2</sub>@Reduced Graphene Oxide@AgNP Composite Microspheres with High Aqueous Dispersity and Excellent Catalytic Activity

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    The hybridizations of functional microspheres with graphene or graphene oxide (GO) sheets often suffer from severe agglomeration behaviors, leading to poor water dispersity of the resultant composite materials. Here, we first demonstrate that the sonication-assisted self-assembly of tiny GO sheets (whose lateral size less than 200 nm) on microspheric substrates like cationic polyelectrolyte-modified SiO<sub>2</sub> microspheres could effectively overcome such a common drawback. On the basis of this facile strategy, we further developed reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticle composite film wrapped SiO<sub>2</sub> microspheres, which not only possessed unique raspberrylike structure and high aqueous dispersity but also exhibited exceptional catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Apoptosis-inducing effect of <i>Pyropolyporus fomentarius</i> PE fraction on S180 cells as detected by Annexin V-FITC (AV)/PI method.

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    <p>(A) cells were analyzed at 36 h post-treatment by flow cytometry. Dot-plot graphs show viable cells (AV<sup>−</sup>/PI<sup>−</sup>), early apoptotic cells (AV<sup>+</sup>/PI<sup>−</sup>), late apoptotic cells(AV<sup>+</sup>/PI<sup>+</sup>), and necrotic cells (AV<sup>−</sup>/PI<sup>+</sup>). (B) The ratio of early apoptotic cells and late apoptotic cells are represented as means ±SD (n = 3). *p<0.05 and **p<0.01 versus the control (CTL).</p

    Cytotoxicity effect of <i>Pyropolyporus fomentarius</i> PE fraction.

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    <p>(A) S180 cells were treated with 0, 120, 240 and 480 µg/ml of PE fraction for 24 h, 48 h. (B) Cell proliferation of PE fraction between HEK 293 cells and S180 cells at 48 h. Each value is expressed as a mean ±SD of three independent experiments. **p<0.01 versus the control (CTL).</p

    Organ index (mg/g BW) of repeated dose 3-weeks PFPE-treated mice<sup>a</sup>.

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    <p>* p<0.05 vs model control group.</p>a<p>Data are expressed as means ± SD (n = 6).</p><p>Organ index (mg/g BW) of repeated dose 3-weeks PFPE-treated mice<sup><a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109599#nt102" target="_blank">a</a></sup>.</p

    <i>Pyropolyporus fomentarius</i> PE fraction stimulated intracellular ROS generation in S180 cells.

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    <p>Cells were treated with different concentrations of PE fraction for 36 h (A), and treated at 480 µg/ml dose for various time periods (B), and labeled with DCFH–DA. The fluorescence intensity of the oxidized product DCF in individual cells was detected by flow cytometry. Each value is expressed as a mean ±SD of three independent experiments.**p<0.01 versus the control (CTL).</p
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