1,749 research outputs found

    Hydrothermal–galvanic couple synthesis of directionally oriented BaTiO3 thin films on TiN-coated substrates

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    AbstractBaTiO3 films were synthesized on TiN-coated Si substrate below 100°C by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique in barium contained alkaline solutions. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction results show that the BaTiO3 thin films were directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates, i.e., (111) BaTiO3 over (111) TiN. The surface morphologies revealed that BaTiO3 nucleated and grew over the TiN surface with a single layer. From kinetic analyses, the growth rates of BaTiO3 films prepared by the hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique were faster than a hydrothermal method. The galvanic effects were confirmed by investigating the induced currents and energies. The galvanic currents were generated and controlled by both the dissolution of TiN and the formation of BaTiO3. The output electric energies increased rapidly with the reaction time and leveled off at the full coverage of BaTiO3

    Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sialomucin Deposition

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    Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a variant of BCC with a characteristic clear cell component that may occupy all or part of the tumor islands. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for glycogen is variably positive, and mild deposition of sulfated mucin has been noted. However, to our knowledge, clear cell BCC with sialomucin deposition has not been reported. Here we report a case of clear cell BCC showing sialomucin deposition. The clear tumor cells stained with PAS and showed incomplete diastase-resistance. In addition, mucin staining with alcian blue was positive at pH 2.5 but not at pH 0.5

    Arbitrary Engineering of Spatial Caustics with 3D-printed Metasurfaces

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    Caustics occur in diverse physical systems, spanning the nano-scale in electron microscopy to astronomical-scale in gravitational lensing. As envelopes of rays, optical caustics result in sharp edges or extended networks. Caustics in structured light, characterized by complex-amplitude distributions, have innovated numerous applications including particle manipulation, high-resolution imaging techniques, and optical communication. However, these applications have encountered limitations due to a major challenge in engineering caustic fields with customizable propagation trajectories and in-plane intensity profiles. Here, we introduce the compensation phase via 3D-printed metasurfaces to shape caustic fields with curved trajectories in free space. The in-plane caustic patterns can be preserved or morphed from one structure to another during propagation. Large-scale fabrication of these metasurfaces is enabled by the fast-prototyping and cost-effective two-photon polymerization lithography. Our optical elements with the ultra-thin profile and sub-millimeter extension offer a compact solution to generating caustic structured light for beam shaping, high-resolution microscopy, and light-matter-interaction studies

    A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among Chinese kids against Obesity (CLICK-Obesity) in Nanjing City, China: The baseline data

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    Background: urgent development of effective interventions to prevent rapidly rising childhood obesity in China is needed. Methods: Between May 2010 and December 2013, a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 4 graders in eight urban primary schools randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in Nanjing, China. A multi-component intervention program was implemented within the treatment group, while students in the control group followed their usual health education curriculum without additional intervention. Results: At baseline, 638 and 544 students were enrolled in the intervention and control group, respectively. The prevalence of excess body weight was 26.8%, with 27.4% in the intervention group and 26.1% in the control group (p=0.61). The mean (SD) BMI and WC was 18.7 (3.0) and 63.0 (9.2) for participants in intervention schools, and 18.5 (2.9) and 63.6 (8.7) for students in control group, separately (p=0.24 and 0.41, respectively). Compared to those who were not aware of what lifestyle/behavior factors were unhealthy, students who were aware of the unhealthy lifestyle/ behavior factors consumed fewer fried snacks (0.46±0.76 serves/week vs 0.65±0.91 serves/week;

    Observation of Three-dimensional Photonic Dirac points and Spin-polarized Surface Arcs

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    Topological phases arise from the elegant mathematical structures imposed by the interplay between symmetry and topology1-5. From gapped topological insulators to gapless semimetals, topological materials in both quantum and classical systems, have grown rapidly in the last decade. Among them, three-dimensional Dirac semimetal lies at the topological phase transition point between various topological phases. It shares multiple exotic topological features with other topological materials, such as Fermi arcs and chiral anomaly with Weyl semimetals30, spin-dependent surface states with topological insulators29. In spite of the important role it plays in topological physics, no experimental observation of three-dimension Dirac points has been reported in classical systems so far. Here, we experimentally demonstrate three-dimension photonic Dirac points in an elaborately designed photonic metamaterial, in which two symmetrically placed Dirac points are stabilized by electromagnetic duality symmetry31. Spin-polarized surface arcs (counterparts of Fermi arcs in electronic systems) are demonstrated, which paves the way towards spin-multiplexed topological surface wave propagation. Closely linked to other exotic states through topological phase transitions, our system offers an effective medium platform for topological photonics.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figure