160,838 research outputs found

    Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

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    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors

    Underwater seismic source

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    Apparatus for generating a substantially oscillation-free seismic signal for use in underwater petroleum exploration, including a bag with walls that are flexible but substantially inelastic, and a pressured gas supply for rapidly expanding the bag to its fully expanded condition is described. The inelasticity of the bag permits the application of high pressure gas to rapidly expand it to full size, without requiring a venting mechanism to decrease the pressure as the bag approaches a predetermined size to avoid breaking of the bag

    Portable heatable container

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    A container is provided which can be designed to heat its outer surface to sterilize it, or to heat its inner surface and any contents therewithin. In a container that self sterilizes its outer surface, the container includes a combustible layer of thermite-type pyrotechnic material which can be ignited to generate considerable heat, and a thin casing around the combustible layer which is of highly thermally conductive materials such as aluminum which can be heated to a high temperature by the ignited combustible layer. A buffer layer which may be of metal, lies within the combustible layer, and a layer of insulation such as Teflon lies within the buffer layer to insulate the contents of the container from the heat

    Method and device for detection of a substance

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    A device is disclosed in which a discharge grid is provided that has a sufficiently high voltage potential across its grid electrodes so that a substance with predetermined characteristics causes an electric spark discharge to occur between electrodes. The electric spark discharge alters the predetermined characteristics of the substance by oxidation and/or vaporization so that the substance is no longer detectable by an electric spark discharge. A means is provided for counting the number of electric spark discharges. This count indicates the concentration of the substance having the predetermined characteristics. One embodiment disclosed detects longitudinally extending carbon fibers suspended in a gaseous medium. Another embodiment provides for the detection of carbon fibers adhesively attached to a collection tape. The tape is positioned against the discharge grid and a high voltage is periodically applied across the grid electrodes until electric spark discharges no longer occur

    Compact pulsed laser having improved heat conductance

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    A highly efficient, compact pulsed laser having high energy to weight and volume ratios is provided. The laser utilizes a cavity reflector that operates as a heat sink and is essentially characterized by having a high heat conductivity, by being a good electrical insulator and by being substantially immune to the deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation. Manual portability is accomplished by eliminating entirely any need for a conventional circulating fluid cooling system

    Instrumentation for sensing moisture content of material using a transient thermal pulse

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    Instrumentation is developed for sensing moisture content of material using a transient thermal pulse and is comprised of a sensing probe having a sensing element in the form of a ribbon excited by a constant current pulse to increase the temperature, and therefore the resistance, of the ribbon linearly. Moisture in web material limits the increase of temperature during the pulse in proportion to the moisture content. This increase in temperature produces a proportional increase in resistivity which is measured with a Wheatsone bridge as a change in voltage displayed by a measurement display unit. The probe is glued in a shallow groove of a lucite bar and connected to copper pins embedded in the bar

    Ant-colony-based multiuser detection for multifunctional-antenna-array-assisted MC DS-CDMA systems

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    A novel Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) based Multi-User Detector (MUD) is designed for the synchronous Multi-Functional Antenna Array (MFAA) assisted Multi-Carrier Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access (MC DS-CDMA) uplink (UL), which supports both receiver diversity and receiver beamforming. The ACO-based MUD aims for achieving a bit-error-rate (BER) performance approaching that of the optimum maximum likelihood (ML) MUD, without carrying out an exhaustive search of the entire MC DS-CDMA search space constituted by all possible combinations of the received multi-user vectors. We will demonstrate that regardless of the number of the subcarriers or of the MFAA configuration, the system employing the proposed ACO based MUD is capable of supporting 32 users with the aid of 31-chip Gold codes used as the T-domain spreading sequence without any significant performance degradation compared to the single-user system. As a further benefit, the number of floating point operations per second (FLOPS) imposed by the proposed ACO-based MUD is a factor of 108 lower than that of the ML MUD. We will also show that at a given increase of the complexity, the MFAA will allow the ACO based MUD to achieve a higher SNR gain than the Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) MC DS-CDMA system. Index Terms—Ant Colony Optimization, Multi-User Detector, Multi-Functional Antenna Array, Multi-Carrier Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access, Uplink, Near-Maximum Likelihood Detection