4,491 research outputs found

    Mach number effects on transonic aeroelastic forces and flutter characteristics

    Get PDF
    Transonic aeroelastic stability analysis and flutter calculations are presented for a generic transport-type wing based on the use of the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) finite-difference code. The CAP-TSD code was recently developed for transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations. A binary aeroelastic system consisting of simple bending and torsion modes was used to study aeroelastic behavior at transonic speeds. Generalized aerodynamic forces are presented for a wide range of Mach number and reduced frequency. Aeroelastic characteristics are presented for variations in freestream Mach number, mass ratio, and bending-torsion frequency ratio. Flutter boundaries are presented which have two transonic dips in flutter speed. The first dip is the usual transonic dip involving a bending-dominated flutter mode. The second dip is characterized by a single degree-of-freedom torsion oscillation. These aeroelastic results are physically interpreted and shown to be related to the steady state shock location and changes in generalized aerodynamic forces due to freestream Mach number

    Three-dimensional time-marching aeroelastic analyses using an unstructured-grid Euler method

    Get PDF
    Modifications to a three dimensional, implicit, upwind, unstructured-grid Euler code for aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations are described. The modifications involve the addition of the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time integration with the governing flow equations. The paper presents a detailed description of the time marching aeroelastic procedure and presents comparisons with experimental data to provide an assessment of the capability. Flutter results are shown for an isolated 45 degree swept-back wing and a supersonic transport configuration with a fuselage, clipped delta wing, and two identical rearward-mounted nacelles. Comparisons between computed and experimental flutter characteristics show good agreement, giving confidence in the accuracy of the aeroelastic capability that was developed

    Aeroelastic analysis of wings using the Euler equations with a deforming mesh

    Get PDF
    Modifications to the CFL3D three dimensional unsteady Euler/Navier-Stokes code for the aeroelastic analysis of wings are described. The modifications involve including a deforming mesh capability which can move the mesh to continuously conform to the instantaneous shape of the aeroelastically deforming wing, and including the structural equations of motion for their simultaneous time-integration with the governing flow equations. Calculations were performed using the Euler equations to verify the modifications to the code and as a first step toward aeroelastic analysis using the Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for the NACA 0012 airfoil and a 45 deg sweptback wing to demonstrate applications of CFL3D for generalized force computations and aeroelastic analysis. Comparisons are made with published Euler results for the NACA 0012 airfoil and with experimental flutter data for the 45 deg sweptback wing to assess the accuracy of the present capability. These comparisons show good agreement and, thus, the CFL3D code may be used with confidence for aeroelastic analysis of wings

    Spatial adaption procedures on unstructured meshes for accurate unsteady aerodynamic flow computation

    Get PDF
    Spatial adaption procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaption procedures were developed and implemented within a two-dimensional unstructured-grid upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in a high gradient region or the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational costs. A detailed description is given of the enrichment and coarsening procedures and comparisons with alternative results and experimental data are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady transonic results, obtained using spatial adaption for the NACA 0012 airfoil, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that the shock waves are very sharply captured. The results were obtained with a computational savings of a factor of approximately fifty-three for a steady case and as much as twenty-five for the unsteady cases

    Spatial adaptation procedures on tetrahedral meshes for unsteady aerodynamic flow calculations

    Get PDF
    Spatial adaptation procedures for the accurate and efficient solution of steady and unsteady inviscid flow problems are described. The adaptation procedures were developed and implemented within a three-dimensional, unstructured-grid, upwind-type Euler code. These procedures involve mesh enrichment and mesh coarsening to either add points in high gradient regions of the flow or remove points where they are not needed, respectively, to produce solutions of high spatial accuracy at minimal computational cost. A detailed description of the enrichment and coarsening procedures are presented and comparisons with experimental data for an ONERA M6 wing and an exact solution for a shock-tube problem are presented to provide an assessment of the accuracy and efficiency of the capability. Steady and unsteady results, obtained using spatial adaptation procedures, are shown to be of high spatial accuracy, primarily in that discontinuities such as shock waves are captured very sharply

    Quality assessment of two- and three-dimensional unstructured meshes and validation of an upwind Euler flow solver

    Get PDF
    Quality assessment procedures are described for two-dimensional and three-dimensional unstructured meshes. The procedures include measurement of minimum angles, element aspect ratios, stretching, and element skewness. Meshes about the ONERA M6 wing and the Boeing 747 transport configuration are generated using an advancing front method grid generation package of programs. Solutions of Euler's equations for these meshes are obtained at low angle-of-attack, transonic conditions. Results for these cases, obtained as part of a validation study demonstrate the accuracy of an implicit upwind Euler solution algorithm

    Thermodynamic Limit Of The Ginzburg-Landau Equations

    Full text link
    We investigate the existence of a global semiflow for the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation on the space of bounded functions in unbounded domain. This semiflow is proven to exist in dimension 1 and 2 for any parameter values of the standard cubic Ginzburg-Landau equation. In dimension 3 we need some restrictions on the parameters but cover nevertheless some part of the Benjamin-Feijer unstable domain.Comment: uuencoded dvi file (email: [email protected]

    Anomalous Heat Conduction and Anomalous Diffusion in Low Dimensional Nanoscale Systems

    Full text link
    Thermal transport is an important energy transfer process in nature. Phonon is the major energy carrier for heat in semiconductor and dielectric materials. In analogy to Ohm's law for electrical conductivity, Fourier's law is a fundamental rule of heat transfer in solids. It states that the thermal conductivity is independent of sample scale and geometry. Although Fourier's law has received great success in describing macroscopic thermal transport in the past two hundreds years, its validity in low dimensional systems is still an open question. Here we give a brief review of the recent developments in experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of heat transport in low dimensional systems, include lattice models, nanowires, nanotubes and graphenes. We will demonstrate that the phonon transports in low dimensional systems super-diffusively, which leads to a size dependent thermal conductivity. In other words, Fourier's law is breakdown in low dimensional structures

    Establishment of a Novel Fluorescence-Based Method to Evaluate Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy in a Single Neuron

    Get PDF
    Background: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a selective autophagy-lysosome protein degradation pathway. The role of CMA in normal neuronal functions and in neural disease pathogenesis remains unclear, in part because there is no available method to monitor CMA activity at the single-cell level. Methodology/Principal Findings: We sought to establish a single-cell monitoring method by visualizing translocation of CMA substrates from the cytosol to lysosomes using the HaloTag (HT) system. GAPDH, a CMA substrate, was fused to HT (GAPDH-HT); this protein accumulated in the lysosomes of HeLa cells and cultured cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) after labeling with fluorescent dye-conjugated HT ligand. Lysosomal accumulation was enhanced by treatments that activate CMA and prevented by siRNA-mediated knockdown of LAMP2A, a lysosomal receptor for CMA, and by treatments that inactivate CMA. These results suggest that lysosomal accumulation of GAPDH-HT reflects CMA activity. Using this method, we revealed that mutant cPKC, which causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14, decreased CMA activity in cultured PCs. Conclusion/Significance: In the present study, we established a novel fluorescent-based method to evaluate CMA activity in a single neuron. This novel method should be useful and valuable for evaluating the role of CMA in various neurona
    corecore