895 research outputs found

    Numerical Sensitivity Tests of Volatile Organic Compounds Emission to PM2.5 Formation during Heat Wave Period in 2018 in Two Southeast Korean Cities

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    A record-breaking severe heat wave was recorded in southeast Korea from 11 July to 15 August 2018, and the numerical sensitivity simulations of volatile organic compound (VOC) to secondarily generated particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) concentrations were studied in the Busan and Ulsan metropolitan areas in southeast Korea. A weather research and forecasting (WRF) model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) was employed, and we carried out VOC emission sensitivity simulations to investigate variations in PM2.5 concentrations during the heat wave period that occurred from 11 July to 15 August 2018. In our study, when anthropogenic VOC emissions from the Comprehensive Regional Emissions Inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment-2015 (CREATE-2015) inventory were increased by approximately a factor of five in southeast Korea, a better agreement with observations of PM2.5 mass concentrations was simulated, implying an underestimation of anthropogenic VOC emissions over southeast Korea. The simulated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) fraction, in particular, showed greater dominance during high temperature periods such as 19-21 July, 2018, with the SOA fractions of 42.3% (in Busan) and 34.3% (in Ulsan) among a sub-total of seven inorganic and organic components. This is considerably higher than observed annual mean organic carbon (OC) fraction (28.4 +/- 4%) among seven components, indicating the enhancement of secondary organic aerosols induced by photochemical reactions during the heat wave period in both metropolitan areas. The PM2.5 to PM10 ratios were 0.69 and 0.74, on average, during the study period in the two cities. These were also significantly higher than the typical range in those cities, which was 0.5-0.6 in 2018. Our simulations implied that extremely high temperatures with no precipitation are significantly important to the secondary generation of PM2.5 with higher secondary organic aerosol fraction via photochemical reactions in southeastern Korean cities. Other possible relationships between anthropogenic VOC emissions and temperature during the heat wave episode are also discussed in this study

    Urine myo-inositol as a novel prognostic biomarker for diabetic kidney disease: a targeted metabolomics study using nuclear magnetic resonance

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    Background As a leading cause of chronic kidney disease, clinical demand for noninvasive biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) beyond proteinuria is increasing. Metabolomics is a popular method to identify mechanisms and biomarkers. We investigated urinary targeted metabolomics in DKD patients. Methods We conducted a targeted metabolomics study of 26 urinary metabolites in consecutive patients with DKD stage 1 to 5 (n = 208) and healthy controls (n = 26). The relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or urine protein-creatinine ratio (UPCR) and metabolites were evaluated. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to estimate relationships between urinary metabolites and the target outcome, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). C statistics and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were used to assess diagnostic validity. Results During a median 4.5 years of follow-up, 103 patients (44.0%) progressed to ESRD and 65 (27.8%) died. The median fold changes of nine metabolites belonged to monosaccharide and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites tended to increase with DKD stage. Myo-inositol, choline, and citrates were correlated with eGFR and choline, while mannose and myo-inositol were correlated with UPCR. Elevated urinary monosaccharide and TCA cycle metabolites showed associations with increased morality and ESRD progression. The predictive power of ESRD progression was high, in the order of choline, myo-inositol, and citrate. Although urinary metabolites alone were less predictive than serum creatinine or UPCR, myo-inositol had additive effect with serum creatinine and UPCR. In time-dependent ROC, myo-inositol was more predictive than UPCR of 1-year ESRD progression prediction. Conclusion Myo-inositol can be used as an additive biomarker of ESRD progression in DKD

    The Skin Antiseptic agents at Vaginal dElivery (SAVE) trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Background Cleansing of the vulva and perineum is recommended during preparation for vaginal delivery, and special attention is paid to cleansing before episiotomy because episiotomy is known to increase the risk of perineal wound infection and/or dehiscence. However, the optimal method of perineal cleansing has not been established, including the choice of antiseptic agent. To address this issue, we designed a randomized controlled trial to examine whether skin preparation with chlorhexidine-alcohol is superior to povidone-iodine for the prevention of perineal wound infection after vaginal delivery. Methods In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, term pregnant women who plan to deliver vaginally after episiotomy will be enrolled. The participants will be randomly assigned to use antiseptic agents for perineal cleansing (povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine-alcohol). The primary outcome is superficial or deep perineal wound infection within 30 days after vaginal delivery. The secondary outcomes are the length of hospital stay, physician office visits, or hospital readmission for infection-related complications, endometritis, skin irritations, and allergic reactions. Discussion This study will be the first randomized controlled trial aiming to determine the optimal antiseptic agent for the prevention of perineal wound infections after vaginal delivery. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05122169. First submitted date on 8 November 2021. First posted date on 16 November 202

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð¥with constraintsð ð 𥠥 ðandð´ð¥ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Search for supersymmetry in events with one lepton and multiple jets in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV