107,032 research outputs found

    Complex-k modes of plasmonic chain waveguides

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    Nanoparticle chain waveguide based on negative-epsilon material is investigated through a generic 3D finite-element Bloch-mode solver which derives complex propagation constant (kk). Our study starts from waveguides made of non-dispersive material, which not only singles out "waveguide dispersion" but also motivates search of new materials to achieve guidance at unconventional wavelengths. Performances of gold or silver chain waveguides are then evaluated; a concise comparison of these two types of chain waveguides has been previously missing. Beyond these singly-plasmonic chain waveguides, we examine a hetero-plasmonic chain system with interlacing gold and silver particles, inspired by a recent proposal; the claimed enhanced energy transfer between gold particles appears to be a one-sided view of its hybridized waveguiding behavior --- energy transfer between silver particles worsens. Enabled by the versatile numerical method, we also discuss effects of inter-particle spacing, background medium, and presence of a substrate. Our extensive analyses show that the general route for reducing propagation loss of e.g. a gold chain waveguide is to lower chain-mode frequency with a proper geometry (e.g. smaller particle spacing) and background material setting (e.g. high-permittivity background or even foreign nanoparticles). In addition, the possibility of building mid-infrared chain waveguides using doped silicon is commented based on numerical simulation.Comment: 26 pages, many figures, now including "Supplementary Data". Accepted, Journal of Physics Communicatio

    Counting permutations by alternating descents

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    We find the exponential generating function for permutations with all valleys even and all peaks odd, and use it to determine the asymptotics for its coefficients, answering a question posed by Liviu Nicolaescu. The generating function can be expressed as the reciprocal of a sum involving Euler numbers. We give two proofs of the formula. The first uses a system of differential equations. The second proof derives the generating function directly from general permutation enumeration techniques, using noncommutative symmetric functions. The generating function is an "alternating" analogue of David and Barton's generating function for permutations with no increasing runs of length 3 or more. Our general results give further alternating analogues of permutation enumeration formulas, including results of Chebikin and Remmel
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