1,008 research outputs found

    'Ruiduxiangyu': A new table grape with muscat flavor

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    Research Note

    'Ruiduwuheyi Seedless': A new late-maturing seedless table grape

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    Research Note

    Neutrophils and Immunity: From Bactericidal Action to Being Conquered

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    The neutrophil is the major phagocyte and the final effector cell of the innate immunity, with a primary role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens. Using the broad array of cytokines, extracellular traps, and effector molecules as the humoral arm, neutrophils play a crucial role in the host defense against pathogen infections. On the other hand, the pathogen has the capacity to overcome neutrophil-mediated host defense to establish infection causing human disease. Pathogens, such as S. aureus, have the potential to thwart neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis and thereby succeed in evading killing by neutrophils. Furthermore, S. aureus surviving within neutrophils promotes neutrophil cytolysis, resulting in the release of host-derived molecules that promote local inflammation. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the mechanisms by which neutrophils kill the extracellular pathogens and how pathogens evade neutrophils degradation. This review will provide insights that might be useful for the development of novel therapies against infections caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens

    Istodobni dokaz i razlikovanje svinjskog cirkovirusa tip 2, virusa reprodukcijskog i respiratornog sindroma tip 2, parvovirusa i virusa bolesti Aujeszkoga višestrukom lančanom reakcijom polimerazom u odbijene prasadi sa sindromom kržljavosti.

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    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed for the simultaneous detection of four viruses involved in postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs: porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV). Each of the four pairs of primers exclusively amplified the targeted fragment of the specific viruses. The sensitivity of the multiplex PCR, using purified plasmid constructs containing the specific viral target fragments, was 4.0×103, 4.5×103, 3.0×102 and 5.0×102 copies for PCV-2, type 2 PRRSV, PPV, PRV. Among 82 clinical samples, coinfection by PCV-2 and type 2 PRRSV was the most common. When compared with the virus isolation method commonly used to detect viruses, the multiplex PCR assay was found to be more sensitive and rapid and, as such, may prove to be a good alternative method for the detection of and differentiation in PMWS in pigs.Višestruka lančana reakcija polimerazom (PCR) razvijena je za istodobni dokaz četiriju virusa koji se nalaze kod sindroma kržljavosti odbijene prasadi: svinjskog cirkovirusa tip 2, virusa reprodukcijskog i respiratornog sindroma tip 2, parvovirusa i virusa bolesti Aujeszkoga. Svaki od četiri para početnica bio je specifičan isključivo za umnožavanje specifičnog fragmenta određenog virusa. Osjetljivost višestrukog PCR-a upotrebom pročišćenih konstrukata plazmida koji sadrže specifične virusne fragmente bila je na razini 4,0×103 kopija za svinjski cirkovirus tip 2, 4,5×103 kopija za virus reprodukcijskog i respiratornog sindroma, 3,0×102 za svinjski parvovirus i 5,0×102 kopija za virus bolesti Aujeszkoga. Među 82 klinička uzorka često je dokazana koinfekcija svinjskim cirkovirusom tip 2 i virusom respiratornog i reprodukcijskog sindroma. U usporedbi s izolacijom virusa, višestruka lančana reakcija polimerazom pokazala se osjetljivijom i bržom te se kao takva može rabiti kao alternativna metoda za dokaz i razlikovanje uzročnika sindroma kržljavosti prasadi

    Transcriptional response of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) inoculated simultaneously with both Ganoderma boninense and Trichoderma harzianum

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    Application of beneficial microbes offers an environmentally friendly alternative for mitigation of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm. However, the biocontrol mechanisms of Trichoderma against the pathogenic Ganoderma spp. which cause BSR are largely unknown at the molecular level. To identify the transcripts involved during induced systemic resistance (ISR), we analyzed the root transcriptomes of oil palm seedlings inoculated simultaneously with both G. boninense and T. harzianum, and un-inoculated oil palm seedlings, as well as those that were inoculated with either pathogenic or beneficial fungi. Our analyses revealed that the biocontrol mechanisms of T. harzianum against G. boninense involve modulation of genes related to biosynthesis of phytohormones (ethylene, MeJA and MeSA), antioxidant (l-ascorbate and myo-inositol) and unique secondary metabolites such as momilactone, cell wall metabolisms, and detoxification of phytotoxic compounds; in addition to its role as a biofertilizer which improves nutritional status of host plant. The outcomes of this study have fueled our understanding on the biocontrol mechanisms involving T. harizianum against G. boninense infection in oil palm roots
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