42 research outputs found

### Witnessing multipartite entanglement by detecting asymmetry

The characterization of quantum coherence in the context of quantum
information theory and its interplay with quantum correlations is currently
subject of intense study. Coherence in an Hamiltonian eigenbasis yields
asymmetry, the ability of a quantum system to break a dynamical symmetry
generated by the Hamiltonian. We here propose an experimental strategy to
witness multipartite entanglement in many-body systems by evaluating the
asymmetry with respect to an additive Hamiltonian. We test our scheme by
simulating asymmetry and entanglement detection in a three-qubit GHZ-diagonal
state.Comment: more examples and discussion in the open access published versio

### Quantum processes which do not use coherence

A major signature of quantum mechanics beyond classical physics is coherence,
the existence of superposition states. The recently developed resource theory
of quantum coherence allows the formalisation of incoherent operations -- those
operations which cannot create coherence. We identify the set of operations
which additionally do not use coherence. These are such that coherence cannot
be exploited by a classical observer, who measures incoherent properties of the
system, to go beyond classical dynamics. We give a physical interpretation in
terms of interferometry and prove a dilation theorem, showing how these
operations can always be constructed by interacting the system in an incoherent
way with an ancilla. Such a physical justification is not known for the
incoherent operations, thus our results lead to a physically well-motivated
resource theory of coherence. Next, we investigate the implications for
coherence in multipartite systems. We show that quantum correlations can be
defined naturally with respect to a fixed basis, providing a link between
coherence and quantum discord. We demonstrate the interplay between these two
quantities under our studied operations, and suggest implications for the
theory of quantum discord by relating the studied operations to those which
cannot create discord.Comment: 15 pages, 6 figures, comments are welcome. Revised presentation and
added Result 7. Close to published version (accepted for publication in
Physical Review X

### Quantum speed limit for perturbed open systems

Quantum speed limits provide upper bounds on the rate with which a quantum
system can move away from its initial state. Here, we provide a different kind
of speed limit, describing the divergence of a perturbed open system from its
unperturbed trajectory. In the case of weak coupling, we show that the
divergence speed is bounded by the quantum Fisher information under a
perturbing Hamiltonian, up to an error which can be estimated from system and
bath timescales. We give two applications of our speed limit. Firstly, it
enables experimental estimation of quantum Fisher information in the presence
of decoherence that is not fully characterised. Secondly, it implies that large
quantum work fluctuations are necessary for a thermal system to be driven
quickly out of equilibrium under a quench.Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures. Comments welcom

### Metrological complementarity reveals the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox

The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox plays a fundamental role in our understanding of quantum mechanics, and is associated with the possibility of predicting the results of non-commuting measurements with a precision that seems to violate the uncertainty principle. This apparent contradiction to complementarity is made possible by nonclassical correlations stronger than entanglement, called steering. Quantum information recognises steering as an essential resource for a number of tasks but, contrary to entanglement, its role for metrology has so far remained unclear. Here, we formulate the EPR paradox in the framework of quantum metrology, showing that it enables the precise estimation of a local phase shift and of its generating observable. Employing a stricter formulation of quantum complementarity, we derive a criterion based on the quantum Fisher information that detects steering in a larger class of states than well-known uncertainty-based criteria. Our result identifies useful steering for quantum-enhanced precision measurements and allows one to uncover steering of non-Gaussian states in state-of-the-art experiments. Steering reflects the ability to predict measurement results on one side of a quantum-correlated system based on measurements on the other side, which can be phrased as a metrology problem. Here, the authors explore this connection, deriving a general steering criterion based on quantum Fisher information

### Thermodynamics of permutation-invariant quantum many-body systems: A group-theoretical framework

Quantum systems of indistinguishable particles are commonly described using the formalism of second quantization, which relies on the assumption that any admissible quantum state must be either symmetric or antisymmetric under particle permutations. Coherence-induced many-body effects such as superradiance, however, can arise even in systems whose constituents are not fundamentally indistinguishable as long as all relevant dynamical observables are permutation-invariant. Such systems are not confined to symmetric or antisymmetric states and therefore require a different theoretical approach. Focusing on noninteracting systems, here we combine tools from representation theory and thermodynamically consistent master equations to develop such a framework. We characterize the structure and properties of the steady states emerging in permutation-invariant ensembles of arbitrary multilevel systems that are collectively weakly coupled to a thermal environment. As an application of our general theory, we further explore how these states can in principle be used to enhance the performance of quantum thermal machines. Our group-theoretical framework thereby makes it possible to analyze various limiting cases that would not be accessible otherwise. In addition, it allows us to show that the properties of multilevel ensembles differ qualitatively from those of spin ensembles, which have been investigated earlier using the standard Clebsch-Gordan theory. Our results have a large scope for future generalizations and pave the way for systematic investigations of collective effects arising from permutation invariance in quantum thermodynamics

### Entanglement between Identical Particles Is a Useful and Consistent Resource

The existence of fundamentally identical particles represents a foundational distinction between classical and quantum mechanics. Due to their exchange symmetry, identical particles can appear to be entangled - another uniquely quantum phenomenon with far-reaching practical implications. However, a long-standing debate has questioned whether identical particle entanglement is physical or merely a mathematical artefact. In this work, we provide such particle entanglement with a consistent theoretical description as a quantum resource in processes frequently encountered in optical and cold atomic systems. This leads to a plethora of applications of immediate practical impact. On one hand, we show that the metrological advantage for estimating phase shifts in systems of identical bosons amounts to a measure of their particle entanglement, with a clearcut operational meaning. On the other hand, we demonstrate in general terms that particle entanglement is the property resulting in directly usable mode entanglement when distributed to separated parties, with particle conservation laws in play. Application of our tools to an experimental implementation with Bose-Einstein condensates leads to the first quantitative estimation of identical particle entanglement. Further connections are revealed between particle entanglement and other resources such as optical nonclassicality and quantum coherence. Overall, this work marks a resolutive step in the ongoing debate by delivering a unifying conceptual and practical understanding of entanglement between identical particles

### Mixing indistinguishable systems leads to a quantum Gibbs paradox

The classical Gibbs paradox concerns the entropy change upon mixing two gases. Whether an observer assigns an entropy increase to the process depends on their ability to distinguish the gases. A resolution is that an "ignorant" observer, who cannot distinguish the gases, has no way of extracting work by mixing them. Moving the thought experiment into the quantum realm, we reveal new and surprising behaviour: the ignorant observer can extract work from mixing different gases, even if the gases cannot be directly distinguished. Moreover, in the macroscopic limit, the quantum case diverges from the classical ideal gas: as much work can be extracted as if the gases were fully distinguishable. We show that the ignorant observer assigns more microstates to the system than found by naive counting in semiclassical statistical mechanics. This demonstrates the importance of accounting for the level of knowledge of an observer, and its implications for genuinely quantum modifications to thermodynamics. Despite its phenomenological beginnings, thermodynamics has been inextricably linked throughout the past century with the abstract concept of information. Such connections have proven essential for solving paradoxes in a variety of thought experiments, notably including Maxwell's demon [1] and Loschmidt's paradox [2]. This integration between classical thermodynamics and information is also one of the main motivating factors in extending the theory to the quantum realm, where information held by the observer plays a similarly fundamental role [3]. In this work, we study the transition from classical to quantum thermodynamics in the context of the Gibbs paradox [4-6]. This thought experiment considers two gases on either side of a box, separated by a partition and with equal volume and pressure on each side. If the gases are identical, then the box is already in thermal equilibrium, and nothing changes after removal of the partition. If the gases are distinct, then they mix and expand to fill the volume independently, approaching thermal equilibrium with a corresponding entropy increase. The (supposed) paradox can be summarised as follows: what if the gases differ in some unobservable or negligible way-should we ascribe an entropy increase to the mixing process or not? This question sits uncomfortably with the view that thermodynamical entropy is an objective physical quantity. Various resolutions have been described, from phenomeno-logical thermodynamics to statistical mechanics perspectives, and continue to be analysed [6-8]. A crucial insight by Jaynes [9] assuages our discomfort at the observer-dependent nature of the entropy change. For an informed observer, who sees the difference between the gases, the entropy increase has physical significance in terms of the work extractable through the mixing process-in principle, they can build a device that couples to the two gases separately (for example, through a semi-permeable membrane) and thus let each gas do work on an external weight independently. An ignorant observer, who * [email protected] † [email protected] ‡ [email protected] has no access to the distinguishing degree of freedom, has no device in their laboratory that can exploit the difference between the gases, and so cannot extract work. For Jaynes, there is no paradox as long as one considers the abilities of the experimenter-a viewpoint central to the present work. We study the Gibbs mixing process for quantum gases of identical bosons or fermions. This is motivated by recognising that the laws of thermodynamics must be modified to account for quantum effects such as coherence [10], which can lead to enhanced performance of thermal machines [11-13]. The thermodynamical implications of identical quantum particles have received renewed interest for applications such as Szi-lard engines [14, 15], thermodynamical cycles [16, 17] and energy transfer from boson bunching [18]. Moreover, the particular quantum properties of identical particles, including en-tanglement, can be valuable resources in quantum information processing tasks [19-21] We consider a toy model of an ideal gas with non-interacting quantum particles, distinguishing the two gases by a spin-like degree of freedom. We describe the mixing processes that can be performed by both informed and ignorant observers, taking into account their different levels of control, from which we can calculate the corresponding entropy changes and thus work extractable by each observer. For the informed observer, we recover the same results as obtained by classical statistical mechanics arguments. However, for the ignorant observer, there is a marked divergence from the classical case. Counter-intuitively, the ignorant observer can typically extract more work from distinguishable gases-even though they appear indistinguishable-than from truly identical gases. In the continuum and large particle number limit which classically recovers the ideal gas, this divergence is maximal: the ignorant observer can extract as much work from apparently indistinguishable gases as the informed observer. Our analysis hinges on the symmetry properties of quantum states under permutations of particles. For the ignorant observer, these properties lead to non-trivial restrictions on the possible work extraction processes. Viewed another way, the microstates of the system described by the ignorant observer are highly non-classical entangled states. This implies a fundamentally different way of counting microstates, and therefor