31 research outputs found

    Ground sections of teeth: histopathological study modality

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    Ground sections of teeth or bone are considered best solutions for the study of any hard tissues in the study of histopathology. Various studies have been performed like progression of dental caries, enamel studies, dentin studies, cementum annulation studies, bone morphologies, age determinaton studies, etc. It is important study part in any forensic studies where mass disasters occurring as natural phenomenon of cyclonic events, earth quakes, floods and volcanic explosions and airplane accidents, industrial accidents and terror related acts. Forensic dentistry has played a vital role and many medico-legal cases are solved by studying the teeth. Ground sections study is important in any part of research. For a dentist this phenomenon is less understood, and this article brings in limelight various methods and study pattern of ground sections of teeth. With this knowledge an understanding and performing ground sections of teeth becomes a well start for dental graduates. Various other modalities in histopathology are decalcification studies, histopathological staining procedures, special stains procedures, immunohistochemistry. All the histopathological modalities have their own importance and are used appropriately in the study of oral pathology

    Nutritional Status and Psychological Impairment in Rural Adolescent Girls: Pilot Data From “KOKAN” Region of Western India

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    Background: Adolescence is a period during which psychological foundations are laid down as well as consolidated. Not much information is available on rural Indian adolescent girls and their psychological health.Methods: We did a pilot survey of psychological health of 80 adolescent girls residing at KOKAN region of western India. Psychological health was evaluated using Youth Paediatric Symptom Checklist (Y-PSC) consisting of 35 items with maximum score of 70. Girls with a score >30 were classified as psychologically impaired. In addition we also collected random blood sample and measured the micronutrients. Macronutrient intake was estimated by 24 h recall.Results: The mean age of the girls was 14 years with a standard deviation of 1.5. In all 35/76 (46.1%) could be classified as psychologically impaired. There was a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies with varying degrees. More than 65% were deficient in calcium, zinc and folic acid. About 22% were anemic and 36% were vitamin B1 deficient. More than 75% had a low recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of macronutrients. Those with poor serum calcium concentration had higher psychological score (p < 0.05). Fat and calcium intakes were inversely associated with psychological score (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 respectively). Odds ratios for psychological impairment were significant for those with low calcium levels [1.47 (95% CI 1.21, 4.31)], and for those with low calcium intake 1.43 (1.08, 3.19) and low iron intake 3.04 (1.02, 9.26).Conclusion: Our pilot data has shown the urgent need to improve the nutrition of adolescent girls, which could improve their psychological health

    Randomized Clinical Trial of High-Dose Rifampicin With or Without Levofloxacin Versus Standard of Care for Pediatric Tuberculous Meningitis: The TBM-KIDS Trial

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    Background. Pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM) commonly causes death or disability. In adults, high-dose rifampicin may reduce mortality. The role of fluoroquinolones remains unclear. There have been no antimicrobial treatment trials for pediatric TBM. Methods. TBM-KIDS was a phase 2 open-label randomized trial among children with TBM in India and Malawi. Participants received isoniazid and pyrazinamide plus: (i) high-dose rifampicin (30 mg/kg) and ethambutol (R30HZE, arm 1); (ii) high-dose rifampicin and levofloxacin (R30HZL, arm 2); or (iii) standard-dose rifampicin and ethambutol (R15HZE, arm 3) for 8 weeks, followed by 10 months of standard treatment. Functional and neurocognitive outcomes were measured longitudinally using Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) and Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Results. Of 2487 children prescreened, 79 were screened and 37 enrolled. Median age was 72 months; 49%, 43%, and 8% had stage I, II, and III disease, respectively. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 58%, 55%, and 36% of children in arms 1, 2, and 3, with 1 death (arm 1) and 6 early treatment discontinuations (4 in arm 1, 1 each in arms 2 and 3). By week 8, all children recovered to MRS score of 0 or 1. Average MSEL scores were significantly better in arm 1 than arm 3 in fine motor, receptive language, and expressive language domains (P < .01). Conclusions. In a pediatric TBM trial, functional outcomes were excellent overall. The trend toward higher frequency of adverse events but better neurocognitive outcomes in children receiving high-dose rifampicin requires confirmation in a larger trial. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT02958709

    Development and characterization of soy-based materials: Plastics, coatings, and foams

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    The research described in this thesis focused on the development, fabrication and characterization of soy based plastics, coatings, and foams. The rapid depletion of the known petroleum reserves has spurred considerable interest in renewable resources derived plastics. Soybeans because of their abundant supply and relative low cost hold considerable potential as a source of different types of plastics. Natural polymers and lipids present in soybeans can be converted into functional plastics for a wide range of applications. Present research involved conversion of soybean oil into an epoxidized soybean oil, which was then transesterified to yield epoxidized allyl ester of soybean oil or epoxidized allyl soyate (EAS). EAS was used for obtaining three types of plastics. It was combined with soy protein isolates (SPI) to develop functional plastics. The plastics were characterized for mechanical and thermal properties. The properties were compared with SPI - glycerol based plastics. The EAS-SPI plastics were found to be vastly superior to SPI-glycerol plastics in terms of mechanical and thermal properties as well as in the environmental stability. EAS was also used as resin for beverage can coatings, these coatings exceeded industrial requirements for curing characteristics and adhesion. The coatings did not impart any off flavors or other negative attributes to the beverage stored with the EAS coated coupons for extended periods. The EAS also proved be a good resin for obtaining epoxy foams Compression and shear characteristics and thermal conductivity of the foams show that foams hold high potential in applications which require high strength foams --Abstract, page iii

    The Potential of Thiazole Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

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    A transnational concern for the healthy development of human beings is antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The rising rates of microbial resistance present a serious issue for the development of human life and hence it is essential to find and create newer antimicrobial drugs with unique modes of action. One approach used these days to solving this challenge is the use of heterocyclics to create hybrid compounds by fusing two or more bioactive heterocyclic moieties into a single molecular platform. This study discusses the many hybrid approaches that have been used to produce possible novel antimicrobial medicines that are both safe and effective. The landscaping of heterocycles such as thiazole derivatives is covered in the current review paper. In this paper, all the extensive approaches of heterocyclic composites, primarily thiazole derivatives, exhibit vibrant biological activity. The purpose of this work is to support methods that may be used to create various thiazole derivatives and their biological activity. This paper will offer great recommendations for potential medicine designs in the future

    The Potential of Thiazole Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents

    No full text
    A transnational concern for the healthy development of human beings is antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The rising rates of microbial resistance present a serious issue for the development of human life and hence it is essential to find and create newer antimicrobial drugs with unique modes of action. One approach used these days to solving this challenge is the use of heterocyclics to create hybrid compounds by fusing two or more bioactive heterocyclic moieties into a single molecular platform. This study discusses the many hybrid approaches that have been used to produce possible novel antimicrobial medicines that are both safe and effective. The landscaping of heterocycles such as thiazole derivatives is covered in the current review paper. In this paper, all the extensive approaches of heterocyclic composites, primarily thiazole derivatives, exhibit vibrant biological activity. The purpose of this work is to support methods that may be used to create various thiazole derivatives and their biological activity. This paper will offer great recommendations for potential medicine designs in the future

    The Effect of N95 Mask on Peripheral Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate among Indian Medical Professionals: A Quasi-experimental Study

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    Introduction: Among all face masks, N95 masks have been recommended for medical professionals involved mainly in patients with severe respiratory illnesses. Studies showing a decrease in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and an increase in heart rate after N95 mask usage have already created panic/ concern among medical professionals. On the contrary, a few studies have shown no such negative impact of N95 mask usage, thereby urging scientific communities to investigate/ explore these contrasting results. Aim: To study the effect of wearing an N95 mask continuously for three hours on SpO2 and heart rate specifically in Indian medical professionals. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted for a period of 2 months from June 15, 2022, to August 15, 2022, at Shri Ram Murti Smarak Institute of Medical Sciences, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India, with a total of 105 healthy Indian medical professionals aged 18-40 years (55 males, 50 females) (12 study participants dropped from the study midway). In each participant, SpO2 and heart rate were recorded first without a mask (M0) and then with a mask (M3) after three hours of routine work in the hospital. Using Mystat statistical software (version 12.0), results were expressed as mean±Standard Deviation (SD), and Student’s paired t-test was used to compare the pairs of means. Results: Among the 105 eligible participants, 93 successfully completed the study, whereas 12 participants were excluded (dropout rate=11.42%). The study included 55 males (52.38%) and 50 females (47.61%) with an age range of 18-40 years and a mean age of 30.2±6.4 years. The SpO2 levels statistically showed a highly significant decrease after three hours of wearing an N95 mask (96.5±0.83% in M0 vs. 93.98±0.6% in M3). Similarly, the heart rate statistically showed a highly significant increase after three hours of using an N95 mask (73.45±3.6 in M0 vs. 89.6±6.1 beats/min in M3). Conclusion: The authors highlighted lower SpO2 levels and an increase in heart rate after three hours of N95 mask usage specifically in Indian medical professionals and thereby appeal to develop/upgrade the N95 mask by lowering its humidity, thermal stress, and breathing resistance

    Biophysical studies on calcium and carbohydrate binding to carbohydrate recognition domain of Gal/GalNAc lectin from Entamoeba histolytica: insights into host cell adhesion

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    Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric parasite expresses a Gal/GalNAc-specific lectin that contributes to its virulence by establishing adhesion to host cell. In this study, carbohydrate recognition domain of Hgl (EhCRD) was purified and biophysical studies were conducted to understand the thermodynamic basis of its binding to carbohydrate and Ca. Here, we show that carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the lectin binds to calcium through DPN motif. To decipher the role of calcium in carbohydrate binding and host cell adhesion, biophysical and cell-based studies were carried out. We demonstrated that the presence of the cation neither change the affinity of the lectin for carbohydrates nor alters its conformation. Mutation of the calcium-binding motif in EhCRD resulted in complete loss of ability to bind calcium but retained its affinity for carbohydrates. Purified EhCRD significantly diminished adhesion of the amebic trophozoites to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells as well as triggered red blood cell agglutination. The calcium-binding defective mutant abrogated amebic adhesion to CHO cells similar to the wild-type protein, but it failed to agglutinate RBCs suggesting a differential role of the cation in these two processes. This study provides the first molecular description of the role of calcium in Gal/GalNAc mediated host cell adhesion
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