3 research outputs found

    A Comparative Account of External Sculpture of the Eggs of Two Tiger-Moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Lepidoptera) from India

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    This study aimed to update the taxonomic data of two tiger moths which were earlier based upon the taxonomic characteristics of adult specimens only like male and female genitalic features. This study is an attempt to prove that the ultrastructural characteristics of the egg chorion of these tiger moth species are also important and they can be used in early taxonomic identifications of these species based on egg characteristics as they are also found to be species-specific. A scanning electron microscope was used to inspect, characterize and depict eggs of two species referable to Spilarctia Butler and Cladarctia Koda of the Erebidae family. The descriptions and comparative morphological analyses of the eggshells of Spilarctia multiguttata (Walker) and Cladarctia quadriramosa (Kollar) were compiled to present the structural complexity of these tiny eggs and depict the distinct patterns of structural features including the central micropylar pit, micropylar rosette, number of micropyles and aeropyles. The SEM analysis revealed their unique architecture which allows for unrestricted exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide while limiting water loss because of the presence of minute air pores all over the chorion. From the results, it is evident that the ultrastructural egg chorion characters are of great taxonomic value at specific as well as generic levels and these types of investigations must be amplified to improve and escalate the morphological personation of tiger moths

    Nanomaterials and Their Impact on the Immune System.

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    Nanomaterials have been the focus of intensive development and research in the medical and industrial sectors over the past several decades. Some studies have found that these compounds can have a detrimental impact on living organisms, including their cellular components. Despite the obvious advantages of using nanomaterials in a wide range of applications, there is sometimes skepticism caused by the lack of substantial proof that evaluates potential toxicities. The interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with cells of the immune system and their biomolecule pathways are an area of interest for researchers. It is possible to modify NPs so that they are not recognized by the immune system or so that they suppress or stimulate the immune system in a targeted manner. In this review, we look at the literature on nanomaterials for immunostimulation and immunosuppression and their impact on how changing the physicochemical features of the particles could alter their interactions with immune cells for the better or for the worse (immunotoxicity). We also look into whether the NPs have a unique or unexpected (but desired) effect on the immune system, and whether the surface grafting of polymers or surface coatings makes stealth nanomaterials that the immune system cannot find and get rid of