857 research outputs found

    Testing the efficacy and acceptability of video-reflexive methods in personal protective equipment training for medical interns: a mixed methods study.

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    Objectives To test the efficacy and acceptability of video-reflexive methods for training medical interns in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Design Mixed methods study. Setting A tertiary-care teaching hospital, Sydney, January 2018–February 2019. Participants 72 of 90 medical interns consented to participate. Of these, 39 completed all three time points. Interventions Participants received a standard infection prevention and control (IPC) education module during their hospital orientation. They were then allocated alternately to a control or video group. At three time points (TPs) over the year, participants were asked to don/doff PPE items based on hospital protocol. At the first two TPs, all participants also participated in a reflexive discussion. At the second and third TPs, all participants were audited on their performance. The only difference between groups was that the video group was videoed while donning/doffing PPE, and they watched this footage as a stimulus for reflexive discussion. Primary and secondary outcome measures The efficacy and acceptability of the intervention were assessed using: (1) comparisons of audit performance between and within groups over time, (2) comparisons between groups on survey responses for evaluation of training and self-efficacy and (3) thematic analysis of reflexive discussions. Results Both groups improved in their PPE competence over time, although there was no consistent pattern of significant differences within and between groups. No significant differences were found between groups on reported acceptability of training, or self-efficacy for PPE use. However, analysis of reflexive discussions shows that the effects of the video-reflexive intervention were tangible and different in important respects from standard training. Conclusions Video reflexivity in group-based training can assist new clinicians in engagement with, and better understanding of, IPC in their clinical practice. Our study also highlights the need for ongoing and targeted IPC training during medical undergraduate studies as well as regular workplace refresher training

    Bulk Band Gap and Surface State Conduction Observed in Voltage-Tuned Crystals of the Topological Insulator Bi2_2Se3_3

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    We report a transport study of exfoliated few monolayer crystals of topological insulator Bi2_2Se3_3 in an electric field effect (EFE) geometry. By doping the bulk crystals with Ca, we are able to fabricate devices with sufficiently low bulk carrier density to change the sign of the Hall density with the gate voltage VgV_g. We find that the temperature TT and magnetic field dependent transport properties in the vicinity of this VgV_g can be explained by a bulk channel with activation gap of approximately 50 meV and a relatively high mobility metallic channel that dominates at low TT. The conductance (approximately 2 ×\times 7e2/he^2/h), weak anti-localization, and metallic resistance-temperature profile of the latter lead us to identify it with the protected surface state. The relative smallness of the observed gap implies limitations for EFE topological insulator devices at room temperature.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures. In new version, panels have been removed from Figures 1, 2, and 4 to improve clarity. Additional data included in Figure 4. Introduction and discussion revised and expande

    Evidence for an anomalous current phase relation in topological insulator Josephson junctions

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    Josephson junctions with topological insulator weak links can host low energy Andreev bound states giving rise to a current phase relation that deviates from sinusoidal behaviour. Of particular interest are zero energy Majorana bound states that form at a phase difference of π\pi. Here we report on interferometry studies of Josephson junctions and superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) incorporating topological insulator weak links. We find that the nodes in single junction diffraction patterns and SQUID oscillations are lifted and independent of chemical potential. At high temperatures, the SQUID oscillations revert to conventional behaviour, ruling out asymmetry. The node lifting of the SQUID oscillations is consistent with low energy Andreev bound states exhibiting a nonsinusoidal current phase relation, coexisting with states possessing a conventional sinusoidal current phase relation. However, the finite nodal currents in the single junction diffraction pattern suggest an anomalous contribution to the supercurrent possibly carried by Majorana bound states, although we also consider the possibility of inhomogeneity.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Phase Coherence and Andreev Reflection in Topological Insulator Devices

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    Topological insulators (TIs) have attracted immense interest because they host helical surface states. Protected by time-reversal symmetry, they are robust to non-magnetic disorder. When superconductivity is induced in these helical states, they are predicted to emulate p-wave pairing symmetry, with Majorana states bound to vortices. Majorana bound states possess non-Abelian exchange statistics which can be probed through interferometry. Here, we take a significant step towards Majorana interferometry by observing pronounced Fabry-Perot oscillations in a TI sandwiched between a superconducting and normal lead. For energies below the superconducting gap, we observe a doubling in the frequency of the oscillations, arising from the additional phase accumulated from Andreev reflection. When a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the TI surface, a number of very sharp and gate-tunable conductance peaks appear at or near zero energy, which has consequences for interpreting spectroscopic probes of Majorana fermions. Our results demonstrate that TIs are a promising platform for exploring phase-coherent transport in a solid-state system.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figure

    Quantum oscillations in topological superconductor candidate Cu0.25_{0.25}Bi2_2Se3_3

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    Quantum oscillations are generally studied to resolve the electronic structure of topological insulators. In Cu0.25_{0.25}Bi2_2Se3_3, the prime candidate of topological superconductors, quantum oscillations are still not observed in magnetotransport measurement. However, using torque magnetometry, quantum oscillations (the de Hass - van Alphen effect) were observed in Cu0.25_{0.25}Bi2_2Se3_3 . The doping of Cu in Bi2_2Se3_3 increases the carrier density and the effective mass without increasing the scattering rate or decreasing the mean free path. In addition, the Fermi velocity remains the same in Cu0.25_{0.25}Bi2_2Se3_3 as that in Bi2_2Se3_3. Our results imply that the insertion of Cu does not change the band structure of Bi2_2Se3_3.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Oral cancer secretome: Identification of cancer-associated proteins

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    This study aims to identify cancer-associated proteins in the secretome of oral cancer cell lines. We have successfully established four primary cell cultures of normal cells with a limited lifespan without human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) immortalization. The secretome of these primary cell cultures were compared with that of oral cancer cell lines using 2DE. Thirty five protein spots were found to have changed in abundance. Unambiguous identification of these proteins was achieved by MALDI TOF/TOF. In silico analysis predicted that 24 of these proteins were secreted via classical or nonclassical mechanisms. The mRNA expression of six genes was found to correlate with the corresponding protein abundance. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) core analysis revealed that the identified proteins were relevant in, and related to, cancer development with likely involvements in tumor growth, metastasis, hyperproliferation, tumorigenesis, neoplasia, hyperplasia, and cell transformation. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that a comparative study of the secretome of cancer versus normal cell lines can be used to identify cancer-associated proteins.Article Link: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/elps.201300126/abstrac

    Crystal Structure and Chemistry of Topological Insulators

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    Topological surface states, a new kind of electronic state of matter, have recently been observed on the cleaved surfaces of crystals of a handful of small band gap semiconductors. The underlying chemical factors that enable these states are crystal symmetry, the presence of strong spin orbit coupling, and an inversion of the energies of the bulk electronic states that normally contribute to the valence and conduction bands. The goals of this review are to briefly introduce the physics of topological insulators to a chemical audience and to describe the chemistry, defect chemistry, and crystal structures of the compounds in this emergent field.Comment: Submitted to Journal of Materials Chemistry, 47 double spaced pages, 9 figure

    A participatory research approach in community pharmacy research: The case for video-reflexive ethnography.

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    Video-reflexive ethnography (VRE) is a qualitative methodology that explores the complex nature of healthcare 'as it really is'. Its collaborative and reflexive process invites stakeholders (e.g. pharmacists and pharmacy support staff) to participate in analysing their everyday work practices as captured on video footage. Through close collaboration with practitioners and attention to their work contexts, VRE may be a useful methodology to engage a time-poor pharmacy workforce in research about themselves, encouraging more practitioner involvement in practice-based research. Aside from research, VRE has also been used effectively as an intervention to facilitate learning and change in healthcare settings, and could be effective in provoking change in otherwise resistant pharmacy environments. Much like traditional ethnographic approaches, VRE researchers have relied on being present 'in the field' to observe, record and make sense of practices with participants. The COVID-19 pandemic however, has introduced restrictions around travel and physical distancing, which has required researchers to contemplate the conduct of VRE 'at a distance', and to imagine new ways in which the methodological 'closeness' to stakeholders and their workplace contexts can be maintained when researchers cannot be on site. In this commentary, we outline the rationale for participatory methods, in the form of VRE, in pharmacy research. We describe the underlying principles of this innovative methodology, and offer examples of how VRE can be used in pharmacy research. Finally, we offer a reflexive account of how we have adapted the method for use in community pharmacy research, to adapt to physical distancing, without sacrificing its methodological principles. This paper offers not only a new methodology to examine the complexity of pharmacy work, but demonstrates also the responsiveness of VRE itself to complexity, and the potential breadth of future research applications in pharmacy both during and beyond the current pandemic
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