13,088 research outputs found

    Slow onset type PCA events and associated pre-SSC polar geomagnetic disturbances

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    Observation of polar geomagnetic disturbances in connection with polar cap absorptions of slow onset typ

    A New Approach for Simulating Galaxy Cluster Properties

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    We describe a subgrid model for including galaxies into hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster evolution. Each galaxy construct- or galcon- is modeled as a physically extended object within which star formation, galactic winds, and ram pressure stripping of gas are modeled analytically. Galcons are initialized at high redshift (z~3) after galaxy dark matter halos have formed but before the cluster has virialized. Each galcon moves self-consistently within the evolving cluster potential and injects mass, metals, and energy into intracluster (IC) gas through a well-resolved spherical interface layer. We have implemented galcons into the Enzo adaptive mesh refinement code and carried out a simulation of cluster formation in a LambdaCDM universe. With our approach, we are able to economically follow the impact of a large number of galaxies on IC gas. We compare the results of the galcon simulation with a second, more standard simulation where star formation and feedback are treated using a popular heuristic prescription. One advantage of the galcon approach is explicit control over the star formation history of cluster galaxies. Using a galactic SFR derived from the cosmic star formation density, we find the galcon simulation produces a lower stellar fraction, a larger gas core radius, a more isothermal temperature profile, and a flatter metallicity gradient than the standard simulation, in better agreement with observations.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, submitted for publication in ApJ

    Vertex operator for the non-autonomous ultradiscrete KP equation

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    We propose an ultradiscrete analogue of the vertex operator in the case of the ultradiscrete KP equation--several other ultradiscrete equations--which maps N-soliton solutions to N+1-soliton ones.Comment: 9 page