22,059 research outputs found

### Local Energy Gap in Deformed Carbon Nanotubes

The effects of graphite surface geometrical deformation on the dynamics of
conducting electrons are investigated theoretically. The analysis is performed
within the framework of a deformation-induced gauge field and corresponding
deformation-induced magnetic field. It is shown that the latter gives a local
energy gap along the axis of a deformed nanotube. We compare our energy gap
results with experimental data on energy gaps in nanotubes and peapods. We also
discuss the mixing of two Fermi points and construct a general model of low
energy dynamics, including a short-range deformation of the graphite sheet.
This model is equivalent to the Weyl equation in {\it U}(1) Abelian and {\it
SU}(2) non-Abelian deformation-induced gauge fields.Comment: 18 pages, 4 figures, corrected typos, added references, improved
presentation (v4, published version

### Magnetism as a mass term of the edge states in graphene

The magnetism by the edge states in graphene is investigated theoretically.
An instability of the pseudo-spin order of the edge states induces
ferrimagnetic order in the presence of the Coulomb interaction. Although the
next nearest-neighbor hopping can stabilize the pseudo-spin order, a strong
Coulomb interaction makes the pseudo-spin unpolarized and real spin polarized.
The magnetism of the edge states makes two peaks of the density of states in
the conduction and valence energy bands near the Fermi point. Using a
continuous model of the Weyl equation, we show that the edge-induced gauge
field and the spin dependent mass terms are keys to make the magnetism of the
edge states. A relationship between the magnetism of the edge states and the
parity anomaly is discussed.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

### Electrical pump-and-probe study of spin singlet-triplet relaxation in a quantum dot

Spin relaxation from a triplet excited state to a singlet ground state in a
semiconductor quantum dot is studied by employing an electrical pump-and-probe
method. Spin relaxation occurs via cotunneling when the tunneling rate is
relatively large, confirmed by a characteristic square dependence of the
relaxation rate on the tunneling rate. When cotunneling is suppressed by
reducing the tunneling rate, the intrinsic spin relaxation is dominated by
spin-orbit interaction. We discuss a selection rule of the spin-orbit
interaction based on the observed double-exponential decay of the triplet
state.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Phase separation in the vicinity of the surface of $\kappa$-(BEDT-TTF)$_2$Cu[N(CN)$_2$]Br by fast cooling

Partial suppression of superconductivity by fast cooling has been observed in
the organic superconductor $\kappa$-(BEDT-TTF)$_2$Cu[N(CN)$_2$]Br by two means:
a marked sample size effect on the magnetic susceptibility and direct imaging
of insulating regions by scanning microregion infrared reflectance
spectroscopy. Macroscopic insulating regions are found in the vicinity of the
crystalline surface after fast cooling, with diameters of 50--100 $\mu$m and
depths of a few $\mu$m. The very large in-plane penetration depth reported to
date ($\sim$ 24--100 $\mu$m) can be explained by the existence of the
insulating regions.Comment: Several rhetoric alternations to avoid misleadings. 6 pages, 3
figures. to be publihsed in Phys. Rev.

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