18 research outputs found

    Schematic presentation of chromosome 12 with physical location (MB) of each SSR marker used for this study.

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    <p>Locations of SSR markers were obtained from <a href="http://www.gramene.org" target="_blank">www.gramene.org</a>. *Physical location unavailable in gramene thus was determined by blasting the primers to the Nipponbare genome.</p

    Description of rice cultivars and breeding lines used in this study.<sup>1</sup>

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    1<p>Characteristics of rice genotypes were verified using 1536 SNP markers <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043066#pone.0043066-Zhao1" target="_blank">[42]</a>.</p>2<p>Cultivar 172 was susceptible to blast although it contains <i>Pi-ta</i> because lacking <i>Ptr(t)</i><a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043066#pone.0043066-Jia7" target="_blank">[25]</a>.</p>3<p>Indicates the absence, and + indicates the presence of resistant <i>Pi-ta</i> allele in each genotype as determined using method described in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0043066#pone.0043066-Jia5" target="_blank">[23]</a>.</p

    <em>Indica</em> and <em>Japonica</em> Crosses Resulting in Linkage Block and Recombination Suppression on Rice Chromosome 12

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    <div><p>Understanding linkage block size and molecular mechanisms of recombination suppression is important for plant breeding. Previously large linkage blocks ranging from 14 megabases to 27 megabases were observed around the rice blast resistance gene <em>Pi-ta</em> in rice cultivars and backcross progeny involving an <em>indica</em> and <em>japonica</em> cross. In the present study, the same linkage block was further examined in 456 random recombinant individuals of rice involving 5 crosses ranging from F<sub>2</sub> to F<sub>10</sub> generation, with and without <em>Pi-ta</em> containing genomic <em>indica</em> regions with both <em>indica</em> and <em>japonica</em> germplasm. Simple sequence repeat markers spanning the entire chromosome 12 were used to detect recombination break points and to delimit physical size of linkage blocks. Large linkage blocks ranging from 4.1 megabases to 10 megabases were predicted from recombinant individuals involving genomic regions of <em>indica</em> and <em>japonica</em>. However, a significantly reduced block from less than 800 kb to 2.1megabases was identified from crosses of <em>indica</em> with <em>indica</em> rice regardless of the existence of <em>Pi-ta</em>. These findings suggest that crosses of <em>indica</em> and <em>japonica</em> rice have significant recombination suppression near the centromere on chromosome 12.</p> </div

    Physical distances of SSR markers co-segregated with <i>Pi-ta</i> and with both borders of the recombination break points in mapping populations.

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    1<p>Physical location of each marker was obtained from <a href="http://www.gramene.org" target="_blank">www.gramene.org</a>.</p>2<p>MB denotes megabases.</p

    Genetic maps showing the size of linkage block among different crosses.

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    <p>A: Lemont and Jasmine 85; B: Early and Katy; C. Cocodrie and MCR 01-0277; D. Katy and Amane (172); E: Zhe733 and Katy. Graphic presentation of chromosome 12 with centromere, and difference of genotypes were indicated by different color shading (Left). Genetic distance in CentiMorgan defined by SSR marker and physical size of the linkage block defined by the two closest SSR markers was shown as LB = (Right) were shown.</p

    Disodium Edetate As a Promising Interfacial Material for Inverted Organic Solar Cells and the Device Performance Optimization

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    Disodium edetate (EDTA-Na), a popular hexadentate ligand in analytical chemistry, was successfully introduced in organic solar cells (OSCs) as cathode interfacial layer. The inverted OSCs with EDTA-Na showed superior performance both in power conversion efficiency and devices stability compared with conventional devices. Interestingly, we found that the performance of devices with EDTA-Na could be optimized through external bias treatment. After optimization, the efficiency of inverted OSCs with device structure of ITO/EDTA-Na/polymer thieno­[3,4-<i>b</i>]­thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC<sub>71</sub>BM/MoO<sub>3</sub>/Al was significantly increased to 8.33% from an initial value of 6.75%. This work introduces a new class of interlayer materials, small molecule electrolytes, for organic solar cells

    Efficient Palladium-Catalyzed C–H Fluorination of C(sp3)–H Bonds: Synthesis of β‑Fluorinated Carboxylic Acids

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    A novel and facile process for direct fluorination of unactivated C­(sp3)–H bonds at the β position of carboxylic acids was accomplished by a palladium­(II)-catalyzed C–H activation. The addition of Ag<sub>2</sub>O and pivalic acid was found to be crucial for the success of this transformation. This reaction provides a versatile strategy for the synthesis of β-fluorinated carboxylic acids

    Combination of Redox Assembly and Biomimetic Mineralization To Prepare Graphene-Based Composite Cellular Foams for Versatile Catalysis

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    Graphene-based materials with hierarchical structures and multifunctionality have gained much interest in a variety of applications. Herein, we report a facile, yet universal approach to prepare graphene-based composite cellular foams (GCCFs) through combination of redox assembly and biomimetic mineralization enabled by cationic polymers. Specifically, cationic polymers (e.g., polyethyleneimine, lysozyme, etc.) could not only reduce and simultaneously assemble graphene oxide (GO) into cellular foams but also confer the cellular foams with mineralization-inducing capability, enabling the formation of inorganic nanoparticles (e.g., silica, titania, silver, etc.). The GCCFs show highly porous structure and appropriate structural stability, where nanoparticles are well distributed on the surface of the reduced GO. Through altering polymer/inorganic pairs, a series of GCCFs are synthesized, which exhibit much enhanced catalytic performance in enzyme catalysis, heterogeneous chemical catalysis, and photocatalysis compared to nanoparticulate catalysts

    An Efficient, Recyclable, and Stable Immobilized Biocatalyst Based on Bioinspired Microcapsules-in-Hydrogel Scaffolds

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    Design and preparation of high-performance immobilized biocatalysts with exquisite structures and elucidation of their profound structure-performance relationship are highly desired for green and sustainable biotransformation processes. Learning from nature has been recognized as a shortcut to achieve such an impressive goal. Loose connective tissue, which is composed of hierarchically organized cells by extracellular matrix (ECM) and is recognized as an efficient catalytic system to ensure the ordered proceeding of metabolism, may offer an ideal prototype for preparing immobilized biocatalysts with high catalytic activity, recyclability, and stability. Inspired by the hierarchical structure of loose connective tissue, we prepared an immobilized biocatalyst enabled by microcapsules-in-hydrogel (MCH) scaffolds via biomimetic mineralization in agarose hydrogel. In brief, the in situ synthesized hybrid microcapsules encapsulated with glucose oxidase (GOD) are hierarchically organized by the fibrous framework of agarose hydrogel, where the fibers are intercalated into the capsule wall. The as-prepared immobilized biocatalyst shows structure-dependent catalytic performance. The porous hydrogel permits free diffusion of glucose molecules (diffusion coefficient: ∼6 × 10<sup>–6</sup> cm<sup>2</sup> s<sup>–1</sup>, close to that in water) and retains the enzyme activity as much as possible after immobilization (initial reaction rate: 1.5 × 10<sup>–2</sup> mM min<sup>–1</sup>). The monolithic macroscale of agarose hydrogel facilitates the easy recycling of the immobilized biocatalyst (only by using tweezers), which contributes to the nonactivity decline during the recycling test. The fiber-intercalating structure elevates the mechanical stability of the in situ synthesized hybrid microcapsules, which inhibits the leaching and enhances the stability of the encapsulated GOD, achieving immobilization efficiency of ∼95%. This study will, therefore, provide a generic method for the hierarchical organization of (bio)­active materials and the rational design of novel (bio)­catalysts

    Enhancing 6‑APA Productivity and Operational Stability of Penicillin G Acylase via Rapid Surface Capping on Commercial Resins

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    In this study, immobilized penicillin G acylase (PGA) was prepared via a facile and rapid approach of generating the TA-Ti<sup>IV</sup> layer on PGA-adsorbed commercial resins (PGA@Resins). In brief, the TA-Ti<sup>IV</sup> layer was constructed through coordination-enabled self-assembly of tannic acid (TA) and titanium­(IV) bis­(ammonium lactate) dihydroxide (Ti-BALDH). In comparison to PGA@Resins, TA-Ti<sup>IV</sup>-capped PGA@Resins exhibited higher 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) productivity and enhanced operational stability along with comparable activity recovery during the catalytic hydrolysis of penicillin G potassium (PGK). Particularly, TA-Ti<sup>IV</sup>-capped PGA@Resins exhibited relative activities of 103.7% and 81.51%, respectively, after 68-day storage and 20 cycles, indicating significantly enhanced storage and recycling stabilities compared to PGA@Resins (68.98% and 62.88%). Both immobilized PGA were further packed into a glass column for hydrolyzing PGK in a continuous flow reactor, where TA-Ti<sup>IV</sup>-capped PGA@Resins displayed a much higher 6-APA yield (initial yield: 49.22% vs 28.99%; yield after 10 days: 17.39% vs 6.11%) than PGA@Resins