1,193 research outputs found

    The Analysis of 2007 APEC News Coverage on the ABC, CNN and Xinhua Websites

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    This essay examines major issues of Australia, the United States and China concerned about in the 2007 APEC Summit held in Australia, and discusses the attitudes of these three countries towards to the 2007 APEC, by examining all the articles about 2007 APEC Summit from three major websites from these countries, ABC, CNN and Xinhua websites. Key words:  2007 APEC Summit; ABC; CNN; Xinhua Résumé:  Cet article examine les grands événements de l'Australie, des États-Unis et de la Chine au Sommet de l'APEC 2007, qui s'est tenue en Australie, et examine les attitudes de ces trois pays vis-à-vis de l'APEC 2007 en examinant tous les articles sur le Sommet de l'APEC 2007 dans les trois grands sites Web de ces pays, ABC, CNN et Xinhua.Mots-clés: sommet APEC 2007; ABC; CNN; Xinhu

    An open reading frame upstream from the nifH gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae

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    An open reading frame upstream from nifHDK operon of Klebsiella pneumoniae had been described. The orientation of this open reading frame is opposite to that of nifHDK and sequence homology was found between the open reading frame promoter and the promoter of nifHDK operon. A recombinant plasmid carrying the promoter region of the open reading frame fused to the beta-galactosidase gene was constructed. Strains of E.coli were transformed with the plasmid containing this open reading frame promoter-lacZ fusion or co-transformed with it and a plasmid carrying the nifA gene. An appreciable activity of beta-galactosidase was found in strains which received both plasmids, indicating that the promoter of the open reading frame can be activated by the product of nifA gene. Thus, the open reading frame found between nifHDK operon and nifJ behaves just like other nif genes of K.pneumoniae in requiring the product of nifA as the positive effector for expression

    The role of globular heads of the C1q receptor in HPV 16 E2-induced human cervical squamous carcinoma cell apoptosis is associated with p38 MAPK/JNK activation

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    BACKGROUND Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) E2 protein is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein. HPV 16 E2 regulates many biological responses, including DNA replication, gene expression, and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the receptor for globular heads of the human C1q (gC1qR) gene expression, HPV 16 E2 transfection and apoptosis regulation in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (C33a and SiHa). METHODS gC1qR expression was examined in C33a and SiHa cells using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Apoptosis of C33a and SiHa cells was assessed by flow cytometry. C33a and SiHa cell viability, migration and proliferation were detected using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay, a transwell assay and 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA (3H-TdR), respectively. RESULTS C33a and SiHa cells that were transfected with a vector encoding HPV 16 E2 displayed significantly increased gC1qR gene expression and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)/c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation as well as up-regulation of cellular apoptosis, which was abrogated by the addition of gC1qR small interfering RNA (siRNA). Furthermore, the changes in C33a and SiHa cell viability, migration and proliferation that were observed upon HPV 16 E2 transfection were abrogated by SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) treatment. CONCLUSION These data support a mechanism whereby HPV 16 E2 induces apoptosis by silencing the gC1qR gene or inhibiting p38 MAPK/JNK signalling in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81000251) and the Nanjing Medical Science and Technique Development Foundation

    From plasmon-enhanced molecular spectroscopy to plasmon-mediated chemical reaction

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    该论文在田中群教授指导下完成,第一作者为iChEM中心2013级博士生战超。 表面等离激元效应可以在时间和空间上实现光子、电子和热能的重新分配。表面等离激元增强分子光谱由于其具有超高的灵敏度在过去四十年里引起了人们的广泛关注并得到快速发展。近年,表面等离激元效应介导的化学反应得到广泛的关注。该综述系统介绍了表面等离激元效应、表面等离激元增强分子光谱和表面等离激元介导化学反应的背景和基础理论,并与传统热化学、光化学和光催化进行对比。通过将表面等离激元介导化学反应与表面等离激元增强分子光谱以及其它反应类型进行比较,归纳出表面等离激元介导化学反应的独特科学内涵,展示了较完整的表面等离激元介导化学反应的物理化学图像。系统深入地分析了表面等离激元介导化学反应的特色和优势、影响因素及其之间的关联性,进而讨论高效利用表面等离激元来介导化学反应的策略,并对该领域做了展望。【Abstract】The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs), collective oscillation of conduction electrons in nanostructures, can redistribute photon, electron and heat energy in time and space. Making use of this ability, plasmon-enhanced molecular spectroscopies (PEMS) with ultra-high sensitivity and surface selectivity have attracted much attention and developed significantly in the past four decades. Recently, SPs have impacted the discipline of chemistry, through plasmon-mediated chemical reactions (PMCR). PMCR exhibit some obvious differences from, and potential advantages over traditional thermal-chemistry, photo-chemistry and photo-catalysis. Our physicochemical understanding of PMCR is still far from complete. In this review, we analyze the common ground and distinctive features of PEMS and PMCR; comparing as well, PMCR and traditional photo-chemical and thermal-chemical reactions. We then discuss how to advance PMCR by rationally designing and fabricating plasmonic nanostructures, selecting suitable surface/interface mediators and teaming them synergistically.We are deeply grateful to M. Moskovits for his very helpful suggestions and careful academic and English editing throughout the manuscript. This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21533006, 21621091, 91427304 and 21403180) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015CB932300). 研究工作得到国家自然科学基金委(21533006、21621091、91427304)和科技部重大科学研究计划(2015CB932300)的支持

    糖尿病周围神经病变的药物与非药物治疗进展

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    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy(DPN) is one of the common chronic complications in diabetic patients. Patients with DPN present variable symptoms and physical findings, ranging from asymptomatic loss of tendon reflex to severe painful neuropathy, even lead to disability. It seriously lower the quality of diabetic patients’ life. Because of its etiology and pathogenesis were not yet fully understood, the treatment has been tending to diversification. Strict glycemic control is a precondition, then we shuold focus on the elimination of the etiology, relieve the symptoms, prevention and treatment the complications.Such as improving vascular function, adjusting the metabolic disorders, relieving pain and other methods. Due to the limitations of western drug treatment, also, non-drug treatment is easy to operate with clear effect and little side effects, current studies of non-drug treatment tend to increase gradually, such as electric acupuncture therapy, autologous bone marrow stem cells implantation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and other methods.The combination of drug and non-drug treatment can improve the curative effect of DPN. This review summarize the progress of drug and non-drug treatment for DPN in the recent years.糖尿病周围神经病变(diabetic peripheral neuropathy,DPN)是糖尿病的常见慢性并发症之一,严重者可致残疾。其发病机制复杂,是多种因素相互作用,最终导致的神经细胞损伤和神经纤维缺血性脱髓鞘。其治疗方法多样,但是缺乏特异性。随着对该病发病机制的深入认识,研究针对致病因子的靶向药物方兴未艾。临床以药物治疗为主,在控制血糖的基础上进行营养神经、改善循环、纠正代谢紊乱、抗氧化、镇痛等治疗。非药物治疗,如高压氧、超短波、电针等,因其操作简单,疗效确切,副作用小等优点,临床应用也越来越广泛。本文就近几年DPN的药物和非药物治疗进展予以综述,旨在为临床治疗DPN提供参考

    Plasmon-Mediated Chemical Reactions on Nanostructures Unveiled by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

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    Surface plasmons (SPs) originating from the collective oscillation of conduction electrons in nanostructured metals (Au, Ag, Cu, etc.) can redistribute not only the electromagnetic fields but also the excited carriers (electrons and holes) and heat energy in time and space. Therefore, SPs can engage in a variety of processes, such as molecular spectroscopy and chemical reaction. Recently, plenty of demonstrations have made plasmon-mediated chemical reactions (PMCRs) a very active research field and make it as a promising approach to facilitate light-driven chemical reactions under mild conditions. Concurrently, making use of the same SPs, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with a high surface sensitivity and energy resolution becomes a powerful and commonly used technique for the in situ study of PMCRs. Typically, various effects induced by SPs, including the enhanced electromagnetic field, local heating, excited electrons, and excited holes, can mediate chemical reactions. Herein, we use the para-aminothiophenol (PATP) transformation as an example to elaborate how SERS can be used to study the mechanism of PMCR system combined with theoretical calculations. First, we distinguish the chemical transformation of PATP to 4,4’-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) from the chemical enhancement mechanism of SERS through a series of theoretical and in situ SERS studies. Then, we focus on disentangling the photothermal, hot electrons, and "hot holes" effects in the SPs-induced PATP-to-DMAB conversion. Through varying the key reaction parameters, such as the wavelength and intensity of the incident light, using various core-shell plasmonic nanostructures with different charge transfer properties, we extract the key factors that influence the efficiency and mechanism of this reaction. We confidently prove that the transformation of PATP can occur on account of the oxygen activation induced by the hot electrons or because of the action of hot holes in the absence of oxygen and confirm the critical effect of the interface between the plasmonic nanostructure and reactants. The products of these two process are different. Furthermore, we compare the correlation between PMCRs and SERS, discuss different scenario of PMCRs in situ studied by SERS, and provide some suggestions for the SERS investigation on the PMCRs. Finally, we comment on the mechanism studies on how to distinguish the multieffects of SPs and their influence on the PMCRs, as well as on how to power the chemical reaction and regulate the product selectivity in higher efficiencies
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