251 research outputs found

    Графический дизайн как визуальный язык межкультурного взаимодействия

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    This article describes how visual graphics language as a sign system can be in contact with the audience, overcoming the language barrier. In terms of graphic design it can be available to transfer information, and even affect the viewer, causing artistic and emotional reflection.Эта статья о том, как визуальный язык графики в виде знаковой символики может входить в контакт со зрителем, преодолевая языковый барьер. На языке графического дизайна можно доступно передать информацию и даже воздействовать на зрителя, вызывая при этом художественно-эмоциональные образы

    Enhanced Promiscuity of Lipase-Inorganic Nanocrystal Composites in the Epoxidation of Fatty Acids in Organic Media

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    In the present study, <i>Candida antarctica</i> lipase B (CALB) was encapsulated in inorganic nanocrystal composites with flower-like shapes, retaining 92% of its catalytic activity compared to that of native lipase. Surprisingly, CALB-inorganic crystal nanoflowers exhibited promiscuous activity at levels 25- and 4-fold higher than those of native lipase and the commercial immobilized lipase Novozym 435, respectively, as demonstrated by the chemoenzymatic epoxidation of fatty acids conducted in organic media. To the best of our knowledge, we showed for the first time that the promiscuity of enzymes can be significantly improved by enzyme immobilization, suggesting that the enzyme-inorganic nanocrystal composites are a very promising type of immobilized enzyme that can be used to address the challenge of the extremely low efficiency of enzymatic promiscuity

    Flowering times of <i>Arabidopsis</i> wild-type (WT) and mutants of different flowering pathways under drought stress.

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    <div><p>(<b>A</b>) Early flowering of WT (Col-0 and Ler-0) plants under drought stress and long-day conditions. </p> <p>(<b>B</b>) Flowering times of mutants of the photoperiod (<i>gi</i>, <i>co</i>), autonomous (flc-3), and phytohormone (gai) pathways under drought stress and long-day conditions. </p> <p>(<b>C</b>) Flowering times of WT (Col-0) plants under drought stress and short-day conditions. </p> <p>(<b>D</b>) Counted flowering times (days) of plants with different genotypes under CK and DR conditions. * flowering significantly earlier under DR condition than under CK condition.</p> <p>DR : Drought treatment began from 10days before flowering.</p></div

    Up-regulation of <i>miRNA172E</i> under drought conditions.

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    <div><p>Each experiment was done triple with similar results.</p> <p>(<b>A</b>) Change in <i>pri-miRNA172</i> levels under drought conditions( Ler-0). </p> <p>(<b>B</b>) Change in mature <i>miRNA172</i> levels under drought conditions in wild-type plants. * <i>P</i><0.05. </p> <p>(<b>C</b>) RT-PCR analysis of <i>Pri-miRNA172A</i> and <i>Pri-miRNA172E</i> in the <i>gi</i> mutant under drought and control conditions. </p> <p>(<b>D</b>) Changes in mature <i>miRNA172A/B</i> and <i>miRNA172E</i> levels under drought conditions in the <i>gi</i> mutant.</p> <p>DR: Drought treatment began from the 14day age. For the mature miRNA assay, samples were collected at the 8<sup>th</sup> day of DR treatment.</p></div

    Yeast two-hybrid system analysis of WRKY and TOE1.

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    <p>Using TOE1 as bait identified WRKY44 as a potential protein interactor. Selective plates lacking adenine, histidine, tryptophan, and leucine (–Ade, –His, –Trp, –Leu) and control plates lacking only tryptophan (–Trp) are shown. Empty vectors (BD) and expressed proteins (TOE1) are indicated. Plates were photographed after 4 d. Potential interactors exhibited positive galactosidase activity (blue).</p

    Phylogenetic analysis of <i>Arabidopsis</i><i>WRKY</i> genes used in this study and <i>WRKY</i> genes from <i>Hordeum vulgare</i>.

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    <p>Data were analyzed by the neighbor joining method. Annotations indicate the regulation of <i>Arabidopsis </i><i>WRKY</i> genes by <i>GI</i>. The number above each branch-point referred to the bootstrap value (maximum is 100), which implied the reliability of existing clades in the tree. The system has performed 1000 replicates to construct the phylogram. The number in each clade represented the percentages of success for constructing the existing clade. 0.1 means 10% substitution rate between two sequences. </p

    Transcriptional levels of <i>WRKY</i> genes in wild type (Ler-0) and <i>gi</i> mutants under standard (CK, white rectangles) and drought (DR, black rectangles) conditions.

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    <p>Results are averages of three biological replicates. *, significantly different (<i>P</i><0.05) expression levels between <i>gi</i> mutants and wild-type plants under CK or DR. DR treatment began from10 day age and maintained for 10 days. </p

    Transcriptional level of <i>WRKY20</i>, <i>WRKY44</i>, and <i>WRKY51</i> in <i>co</i> and <i>miRNA172</i>–over-expressing plants (miRNA172-OX) under standard (CK, white rectangles) and drought (DR, black rectangles) conditions.

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    <p>Controls for the co mutant and miRNA172-OX was <i>Col-</i>0, the wild type in their respective ecotype backgrounds. Results are averages of three biological repeats. * Significantly different (<i>P</i><0.05) expression between miRNA172-OX and WT under both CK and DR conditions. E1-2 line was used as miRNA172-OX. DR treatment began from10 day age and maintained for 10 days. </p

    The <i>gi</i> mutant is sensitive to drought stress.

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    <div><p>(<b>A</b>) The phenotypes of wild-type plants ( Ler-0) and <i>gi</i> mutants under drought stress. (<b>B</b>) Transpiration rates of wild type, <i>gi</i> and <i>miRNA172A</i> (A1-10) <i>/D</i> (D6-3) <i>/E</i> (E1-2, E38-6) over-expressing plants. </p> <p>(<b>C</b>) Water loss in wild type, <i>gi</i> mutants, and plants over-expressing <i>miRNA172A</i> (A1-10) <i>/D</i> (D6-3) <i>/E</i> (E1-2, E38-6).</p> <p>DR treatment began from10 day age and maintained for 10 days.</p></div

    Non-equilibrium Grain Boundary Wetting in Cu–Ag Alloys Containing W Nanoparticles

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    <p>Adding nanoparticles to soft matter and liquids is known to provide remarkable control in the processing of novel materials. Here, we demonstrate a similar potential in crystalline solids. Specifically, we show that the addition of a high density of W nanoparticles dramatically alters the coarsening behavior of precipitate-hardened Cu–Ag alloys. First, the nanoparticles suppress precipitate growth, but far more surprisingly, they induce non-equilibrium Ag wetting layers on grain boundaries. This observation is explained using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, which show that caging of Ag precipitates by the W nanoparticles suppresses their growth and drives the formation of wetting layers.</p