92,485 research outputs found

    Size dependence of second-order hyperpolarizability of finite periodic chain under Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model

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    The second hyperpolarizability γN(3ωω,ω,ω)\gamma_N(-3\omega\omega,\omega,\omega) of NN double-bond finite chain of trans-polyactylene is analyzed using the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model to explain qualitative features of the size-dependence behavior of γN\gamma_N. Our study shows that γN/N\gamma_N/N is {\it nonmonotonic} with NN and that the nonmonotonicity is caused by the dominant contribution of the intraband transition to γN\gamma_N in polyenes. Several important physical effects are discussed to reduce quantitative discrepancies between experimental and our resultsComment: 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Dimerization-assisted energy transport in light-harvesting complexes

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    We study the role of the dimer structure of light-harvesting complex II (LH2) in excitation transfer from the LH2 (without a reaction center (RC)) to the LH1 (surrounding the RC), or from the LH2 to another LH2. The excited and un-excited states of a bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) are modeled by a quasi-spin. In the framework of quantum open system theory, we represent the excitation transfer as the total leakage of the LH2 system and then calculate the transfer efficiency and average transfer time. For different initial states with various quantum superposition properties, we study how the dimerization of the B850 BChl ring can enhance the transfer efficiency and shorten the average transfer time.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figure

    On effects of regular S=1 dilution of S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains by a quantum Monte Carlo simulation

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    The effects of regular S=1 dilution of S=1/2 isotropic antiferromagnetic chain are investigated by the quantum Monte Carlo loop/cluster algorithm. Our numerical results show that there are two kinds of ground-state phases which alternate with the variation of S1=1S^1=1 concentration. When the effective spin of a unit cell is half-integer, the ground state is ferrimagnetic with gapless energy spectrum and the magnetism becomes weaker with decreasing of the S1S^1 concentration ρ=1/M\rho = 1/M. While it is integer, a non-magnetic ground state with gaped spectrum emerges and the gap gradually becomes narrowed as fitted by a relation of Δ1.25ρ\Delta \approx 1.25\sqrt{\rho}.Comment: 6 pages, 9 figure

    Spatiotemporal Patterns and Predictability of Cyberattacks

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    Y.C.L. was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under grant no. FA9550-10-1-0083 and Army Research Office (ARO) under grant no. W911NF-14-1-0504. S.X. was supported by Army Research Office (ARO) under grant no. W911NF-13-1-0141. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Reexamining the temperature and neutron density conditions for r-process nucleosynthesis with augmented nuclear mass models

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    We explore the effects of nuclear masses on the temperature and neutron density conditions required for r-process nucleosynthesis using four nuclear mass models augmented by the latest atomic mass evaluation. For each model we derive the conditions for producing the observed abundance peaks at mass numbers A ~ 80, 130, and 195 under the waiting-point approximation and further determine the sets of conditions that can best reproduce the r-process abundance patterns (r-patterns) inferred for the solar system and observed in metal-poor stars of the Milky Way halo. In broad agreement with previous studies, we find that (1) the conditions for producing abundance peaks at A ~ 80 and 195 tend to be very different, which suggests that, at least for some nuclear mass models, these two peaks are not produced simultaneously; (2) the typical conditions required by the critical waiting-point (CWP) nuclei with the N = 126 closed neutron shell overlap significantly with those required by the N=82 CWP nuclei, which enables coproduction of abundance peaks at A ~ 130 and 195 in accordance with observations of many metal-poor stars; and (3) the typical conditions required by the N = 82 CWP nuclei can reproduce the r-pattern observed in the metal-poor star HD 122563, which differs greatly from the solar r-pattern. We also examine how nuclear mass uncertainties affect the conditions required for the r-process and identify some key nuclei including76Ni to 78Ni, 82Zn, 131Cd, and 132Cd for precise mass measurements at rare-isotope beam facilities.Comment: 28 pages,9 figures,1 tabl

    Vacuolar ATPase depletion contributes to dysregulation of endocytosis in bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei

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    BACKGROUND Vacuolar H-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved protein complex which hydrolyzes ATP and pumps protons to acidify vacuolar vesicles. Beyond its role in pH maintenance, the involvement of V-ATPase in endocytosis is well documented in mammals and plants but is less clear in Trypanosoma brucei. METHODS In this study, the subcellular localization of V-ATPase subunit B (TbVAB) of T. brucei was assessed via in situ N-terminal YFP-tagging and immunofluorescence assays. Transgenic bloodstream forms (BSF) of T. brucei were generated which comprised either a V-ATPase subunit B (TbVAB) conditional knockout or a V-ATPase subunit A (TbVAA) knockdown. Acridine orange and BCECF-AM were employed to assess the roles of V-ATPase in the pH regulation of BSF T. brucei. The endocytic activities of three markers were also characterized by flow cytometry analyses. Furthermore, trypanosomes were counted from trypanolysis treatment groups (either containing 1% or 5% NHS) and endocytosed trypanosome lytic factor (TLF) was also analyzed by an immunoblotting assay. RESULTS TbVAB was found to localize to acidocalcisomes, lysosomes and probably also to endosomes of BSF of T. brucei and was demonstrated to be essential for cell growth. TbVAB depletion neutralized acidic organelles at 24 hours post-tetracycline depletion (hpd), meanwhile the steady state intracellular pH increased from 7.016 ± 0.013 to 7.422 ± 0.058. Trypanosomes with TbVAB depletion at 24 hpd were found to take up more transferrin (2.068 ± 0.277 fold) but less tomato lectin (49.31 ± 22.57%) by endocytosis, while no significant change was detected in dextran uptake. Similar endocytic dysregulated phenotypes were also observed in TbVAA knockdown cells. In addition, TbVAB depleted trypanosomes showed a low uptake of TLF and exhibited less sensitive to lysis in both 1% and 5% NHS treatments. CONCLUSIONS TbVAB is a key component of V-ATPase and was found to play a key function in endocytosis as well as exhibiting different effects in a receptor/cargo dependent manner in BSF of T. brucei. Besides vacuolar alkalinization, the dysregulation of endocytosis in TbVAB depleted T. brucei is considered to contribute to the reduced sensitivity to lysis by normal human serum
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