81 research outputs found

    Analysis of Abnormal Gait in the Diagnosis of Early Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review

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    Early detection of neurodegenerative diseases can increase the possibility to access to treatment, and assist in advance care plan-ning. At present, most of the gait researches focus on the design and application of recognition tools for disease diagnosis, such as recording the walking and movement status through wearable sensor devices, while, relatively less non-contact machine vision is used to measure gait. The non-contact gait detection method is characterized by the advantages, including the absence of human cooperation, non-invasive nature and so on, which is also suitable for long-distance perception. In this paper, we focused on some non-contact analysis methods for abnormal gait, and it is hoped that it can provide guidance for the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases

    Precise Localization and Formation Control of Swarm Robots via Wireless Sensor Networks

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    Precise localization and formation control are one of the key technologies to achieve coordination and control of swarm robots, which is also currently a bottleneck for practical applications of swarm robotic systems. Aiming at overcoming the limited individual perception and the difficulty of achieving precise localization and formation, a localization approach combining dead reckoning (DR) with wireless sensor network- (WSN-) based methods is proposed in this paper. Two kinds of WSN localization technologies are adopted in this paper, that is, ZigBee-based RSSI (received signal strength indication) global localization and electronic tag floors for calibration of local positioning. First, the DR localization information is combined with the ZigBee-based RSSI position information using the Kalman filter method to achieve precise global localization and maintain the robot formation. Then the electronic tag floors provide the robots with their precise coordinates in some local areas and enable the robot swarm to calibrate its formation by reducing the accumulated position errors. Hence, the overall performance of localization and formation control of the swarm robotic system is improved. Both of the simulation results and the experimental results on a real schematic system are given to demonstrate the success of the proposed approach

    AI Security for Geoscience and Remote Sensing: Challenges and Future Trends

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    Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have significantly intensified research in the geoscience and remote sensing (RS) field. AI algorithms, especially deep learning-based ones, have been developed and applied widely to RS data analysis. The successful application of AI covers almost all aspects of Earth observation (EO) missions, from low-level vision tasks like super-resolution, denoising and inpainting, to high-level vision tasks like scene classification, object detection and semantic segmentation. While AI techniques enable researchers to observe and understand the Earth more accurately, the vulnerability and uncertainty of AI models deserve further attention, considering that many geoscience and RS tasks are highly safety-critical. This paper reviews the current development of AI security in the geoscience and RS field, covering the following five important aspects: adversarial attack, backdoor attack, federated learning, uncertainty and explainability. Moreover, the potential opportunities and trends are discussed to provide insights for future research. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is the first attempt to provide a systematic review of AI security-related research in the geoscience and RS community. Available code and datasets are also listed in the paper to move this vibrant field of research forward

    Temporal effect of MgO reactivity on the stabilization of lead contaminated soil

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    Elevated soil lead (Pb) concentrations are a global concern owing to the toxic effects of this heavy metal. Solidification/stabilization (S/S) of soils using reagents like Portland cement (PC) is a common approach for the remediation of Pb contaminated sites. However, it has been reported that under long-term field conditions, the performance of PC treatments can diminish significantly. Therefore, novel reagents that provide longer-term stabilization performance are needed. In this study, four magnesium oxide (MgO) products of different reactivity values were applied (5 wt%) to a Pb contaminated clayey soil. The short-term (1–49 days) and long-term (25–100 years) temporal stabilization effects were investigated by laboratory incubation and accelerated ageing methods, respectively. The concentration of Pb in Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procure (TCLP) leachate was ~14 mg/L for the untreated soil; ~1.8 times higher than the TCLP regulatory level (5 mg/L). Only one day after treatment with MgO, the leachate concentration was reduced to below the regulatory level (a reduction of 69.4%–83.2%), regardless of the MgO type applied. However, in the long-term accelerated ageing experiments, only treatments using the most reactive MgO type could provide leachate concentrations that were consistently below the TCLP threshold throughout the 100 years of simulated ageing. The soil treated with the MgO of lowest reactivity was the first to exceed the regulatory level, at simulated year 75. It is thus demonstrated that MgO reactivity has a significant effect on its long-term effectiveness for contaminated soil stabilization. This is attributed to differences in their specific surface area and readiness to carbonate, which may facilitate the immobilization of Pb in the long term. It is also noteworthy that compared to PC, reactive MgO is more environmentally friendly owing to lower energy consumption and reduced CO2 emissions during its manufacture

    Evidence for Major Contributions of Unintentionally Produced PCBs in the Air of China:Implications for the National Source Inventory

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    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were not widely manufactured or used in China before they became the subject of international bans on production. Recent work has shown that they have reached China associated with imported wastes and that there are considerable unintentional sources of PCBs that have only recently been identified. As such, it was hypothesized that the source inventory and profile of PCBs may be different or unique in China, compared to countries where they were widely used and which have been widely studied. For the first time in this study, we undertook a complete analysis of 209 PCB congeners and assessed the contribution of unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCBs) in the atmosphere of China, using polyurethane foam passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) deployed across a wide range of Chinese locations. ∑209 PCBs ranged from 9 to 6856 pg/m3 (median: 95 pg/m3) during three deployments in 2016-2017. PCB 11 was one of the most detected congeners, contributing 33 ± 19% to ∑209 PCBs. The main sources to airborne PCBs in China were estimated and ranked as pigment/painting (34%), metallurgical industry/combustion (31%), e-waste (23%), and petrochemical/plastic industry (6%). For typical Aroclor-PCBs, e-waste sources were dominated (>50%). Results from our study indicate that UP-PCBs have become the controlling source in the atmosphere of China, and an effective control strategy is urgently needed to mitigate emissions from multiple industrial sources

    Key enzymes catalyzing glycerol to 1,3-propanediol

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    When Extra-Role Behavior Leads to Employee Security Deviance: A Moral Licensing View

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    Recently, there has been increasing interest in studying desirable employee security behaviors, including extra-role behavior in particular. The literature has predominantly focused on the benefits of extra-role behavior for organizational information security policy effectiveness. However, the negative outcomes of extra-role behavior have long been neglected. Therefore, drawing on the moral licensing theory, we investigate when extra-role behavior leads to employee security deviance. Specially, we see resource misuse and security carelessness as necessary forms of employee security deviance and proposes that extra-role behavior might lead to employee security deviance through psychological entitlement. This paper provides essential contributions for future security research, which aims to investigate the dark side of desirable security behavior