804 research outputs found

    Development of a time-to-digital converter ASIC for the upgrade of the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube detector

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    The upgrade of the ATLAS muon spectrometer for high-luminosity LHC requires new trigger and readout electronics for the various elements of the detector. We present the design of a time-to-digital converter (TDC) ASIC prototype for the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) detector. The chip was fabricated in a GlobalFoundries 130 nm CMOS technology. Studies indicate that its timing and power consumption characteristics meet the design specifications, with a timing bin variation of 40 ps for all 48 channels with a power consumption of about 6.5 mW per channel.Comment: 9 pages, 12 figure

    Non-use of Contraception by Canadian Youth Aged 15 to 24: Findings From the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey.

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    OBJECTIVES: Non-use of contraception is an important contributor to unintended pregnancy. This study assessed non-use of contraception and its determinants among Canadian youth aged 15 to 24. METHODS: Data from the 2009-2010 Canadian Community Health Survey respondents aged 15 to 24 were used to identify non-users of contraception among heterosexual youth who had had intercourse within the previous 12 months, were not pregnant or sterilized, and felt it was important to avoid pregnancy. Sociodemographic, behavioural, and geographic factors were compared for non-users and users of contraception. RESULTS: Among youth at risk for unintended pregnancy, 15.5% were non-users of contraception. There were no differences between sexes. Across regions of Canada, Quebéc had the highest proportion of at-risk youth, but at-risk Quebéc youth were the least likely to be non-users (7.4%; CI 5.7%-9.0%) compared with at-risk youth in the Territories (28.3%; CI 21.6%-35.0%). In the multivariable analysis, aside from residence outside of Quebéc, younger age, lower income, Aboriginal identification (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.67; CI 1.18-2.37), and smoking (aOR 1.55; CI 1.24-1.92) were associated with non-use. Canadian-born youth (aOR 0.61; CI 0.39-0.96) and those enrolled in school (aOR 0.63; CI 0.50-0.81) were less likely to be non-users. CONCLUSION: The 15.5% of Canadian youth at risk for unintended pregnancy who were non-users of contraception represent an estimated 300 000 Canadian youth. Policies and programs to promote and support access to sexual health services and effective contraception with specific attention to supporting the needs of younger teens, Aboriginal youth, newcomers, low-income youth, and youth who are not in school are needed

    Estimated glomerular filtration rate is a biomarker of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease

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    BackgroundsThe relationship between kidney function and cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is poorly understood and underexplored. This study aims to explore whether renal indices can serve as indicators to monitor the cognitive impairment of PD.MethodsA total of 508 PD patients and 168 healthy controls from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) were recruited, and 486 (95.7%) PD patients underwent longitudinal measurements. The renal indicators including serum creatinine (Scr), uric acid (UA), and urea nitrogen, as well as UA/Scr ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between kidney function and cognitive impairment were evaluated using multivariable-adjusted models.ResultseGFR was associated with lower levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ1–42 (p = 0.0156) and α-synuclein (p = 0.0151) and higher serum NfL (p = 0.0215) in PD patients at baseline. Longitudinal results showed that decreased eGFR predicted a higher risk of cognitive impairment (HR = 0.7382, 95% CI = 0.6329–0.8610). Additionally, eGFR decline was significantly associated with higher rates of increase in CSF T-tau (p = 0.0096), P-tau (p = 0.0250), and serum NfL (p = 0.0189), as well as global cognition and various cognitive domains (p < 0.0500). The reduced UA/Scr ratio was also linked to higher NfL levels (p = 0.0282) and greater accumulation of T-tau (p = 0.0282) and P-tau (p = 0.0317). However, no significant associations were found between other renal indices and cognition.ConclusioneGFR is altered in PD subjects with cognitive impairment, and predict larger progression of cognitive decline. It may assist identifying patients with PD at risk of rapid cognitive decline and have the potential to monitoring responses to therapy in future clinical practice

    A Novel Role of VEGFC in Cerebral Ischemia With Lung Injury

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    Cerebral ischemia (CI) is a severe brain injury resulting in a variety of motor impairments combined with secondary injury in remote organs, especially the lung. This condition occurs due to insufficient blood supply to the brain during infancy. However, it has a molecular linkage that needs to be thoroughly covered. Here, we report on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) in lung injury induced by CI. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was depended to establish the animal model of CI. Rats were used and brain ischemia was confirmed through TTC staining. Serum was used for protein chip analysis to study the proteomic interaction. Immunohistochemistry analyses were used to quantify and locate the VEGFC in the lung and brain. The role of VEGFC was detected by siVEGFC technology in SY5Y, HUCEV, and A549 cell lines, under normal and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions in vitro. As a result, the TTC staining demonstrated that the model of brain ischemia was successfully established, and MPO experiments reported that lung damage was induced in MCAO rats. VEGFC levels were up-regulated in serum. On the other hand, immunohistochemistry showed that VEGFC increased significantly in the cytoplasm of neurons, the endothelium of small trachea and the lung cells of CI animals. On a functional level, siVEGFC effectively inhibited the proliferation of SY5Y cells and decreased the viability of HUVEC cells in normal cell lines. But under OGD conditions, siVEGFC decreased the growth of HUVEC and increased the viability of A549 cells, while no effect was noticed on SYSY cells. Therefore, we confirmed the different role of VEGFC played in neurons and lung cells in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. These findings may contribute to the understanding the molecular linkage of brain ischemia and lung injury, which therefore provides a new idea for the therapeutic approach to cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

    Voluntary Wheel Running Reverses Deficits in Social Behavior Induced by Chronic Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Involvement of the Dopamine System

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    Voluntary exercise has been reported to have a therapeutic effect on many psychiatric disorders and social stress is known to impair social interaction. However, whether voluntary exercise could reverse deficits in social behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The present study shows CSDS impaired social preference and induced social interaction deficiency in susceptible mice. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) reversed these effects. In addition, CSDS decreased the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase in the ventral tegmental area and the D2 receptor (D2R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. These changes can be recovered by VWR. Furthermore, the recovery effect of VWR on deficits in social behaviors in CSDS mice was blocked by the microinjection of D2R antagonist raclopride into the NAc shell. Thus, these results suggest that the mechanism underlying CSDS-induced social interaction disorder might be caused by an alteration of the dopamine system. VWR may be a novel means to treat CSDS-induced deficits in social behaviors via modifying the dopamine system

    Calibration of the Timing Performance of GECAM-C

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    As a new member of the Gravitational wave high-energy Electromagnetic Counterpart All-sky Monitor (GECAM) after GECAM-A and GECAM-B, GECAM-C (originally called HEBS), which was launched on board the SATech-01 satellite on July 27, 2022, aims to monitor and localize X-ray and gamma-ray transients from \sim 6 keV to 6 MeV. GECAM-C utilizes a similar design to GECAM but operates in a more complex orbital environment. In this work, we utilize the secondary particles simultaneously produced by the cosmic-ray events on orbit and recorded by multiple detectors, to calibrate the relative timing accuracy between all detectors of GECAM-C. We find the result is 0.1 μs\mu \rm s, which is the highest time resolution among all GRB detectors ever flown and very helpful in timing analyses such as minimum variable timescale and spectral lags, as well as in time delay localization. Besides, we calibrate the absolute time accuracy using the one-year Crab pulsar data observed by GECAM-C and Fermi/GBM, as well as GECAM-C and GECAM-B. The results are 2.02±2.26 μs2.02\pm 2.26\ \mu \rm s and 5.82±3.59 μs5.82\pm 3.59\ \mu \rm s, respectively. Finally, we investigate the spectral lag between the different energy bands of Crab pulsar observed by GECAM and GBM, which is 0.2 μs keV1\sim -0.2\ {\rm \mu s\ keV^{-1}}.Comment: submitte
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