1,280 research outputs found

    The tensor renormalization group study of the general spin-S Blume-Capel model

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    We focus on the special situation of D=2JD=2J of the general spin-S Blume-Capel model on the square lattice. Under the infinitesimal external magnetic field, the phase transition behaviors due to the thermal fluctuations are discussed by the newly developed tensor renormalization group method. For the case of the integer spin-S, the system will undergo SS first-order phase transitions with the successive symmetry breaking with the magnetization M=S,S1,...0M=S,S-1,...0. For the half-integer spin-S, there are similar S1/2S-1/2 first order phase transition with M=S,S1,...1/2M=S,S-1,...1/2 stepwise structure, in addition, there is a continuous phase transition due to the spin-flip Z2Z_2 symmetry breaking. In the low temperature regions, all first-order phase transitions are accompanied by the successive disappearance of the optional spin-component pairs(s,ss,-s), furthermore, the critical temperature for the nth first-order phase transition is the same, independent of the value of the spin-S. In the absence of the magnetic field, the visualization parameter characterizing the intrinsic degeneracy of the different phases clearly demonstrates the phase transition process.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figure

    A Sensitive Film Structure Improvement of Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Resistive Gas Sensors

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    This study was focused on how to improve the gas sensing properties of resistive gas sensors based on reduced graphene oxide. Sol-airbrush technology was utilized to prepare reduced graphene oxide films using porous zinc oxide films as supporting materials mainly for carbon dioxide sensing applications. The proposed film structure improved the sensitivity and the response/recovery speed of the sensors compared to those of the conventional ones and alleviated the restrictions of sensors\u27 performance to the film thickness. In addition, the fabrication technology is relatively simple and has potential for mass production in industry. The improvement in the sensitivity and the response/recovery speed is helpful for fast detection of toxic gases or vapors in environmental and industrial applications

    Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging

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    As one of nanoscale planar structures, metasurface has shown excellent superiorities on manipulating light intensity, phase and/or polarization with specially designed nanoposts pattern. It allows to miniature a bulky optical lens into the chip-size metalens with wavelength-order thickness, playing an unprecedented role in visible imaging systems (e.g. ultrawide-angle lens and telephoto). However, a CMOS-compatible metalens has yet to be achieved in the visible region due to the limitation on material properties such as transmission and compatibility. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a divergent metalens based on silicon nitride platform with large numerical aperture (NA~0.98) and high transmission (~0.8) for unpolarized visible light, fabricated by a 695-nm-thick hexagonal silicon nitride array with a minimum space of 42 nm between adjacent nanoposts. Nearly diffraction-limit virtual focus spots are achieved within the visible region. Such metalens enables to shrink objects into a micro-scale size field of view as small as a single-mode fiber core. Furthermore, a macroscopic metalens with 1-cm-diameter is also realized including over half billion nanoposts, showing a potential application of wide viewing-angle functionality. Thanks to the high-transmission and CMOS-compatibility of silicon nitride, our findings may open a new door for the miniaturization of optical lenses in the fields of optical fibers, microendoscopes, smart phones, aerial cameras, beam shaping, and other integrated on-chip devices.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figure

    FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, promotes neuroregeneration through indirect and direct mechanisms.

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    FSD-C10, a Fasudil derivative, was shown to reduce severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), through the modulation of the immune response and induction of neuroprotective molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). However, whether FSD-C10 can promote neuroregeneration remains unknown. In this study, we further analyzed the effect of FSD-C10 on neuroprotection and remyelination. FSD-C10-treated mice showed a longer, thicker and more intense MAP2 and synaptophysin positive signal in the CNS, with significantly fewer CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and microglia. Importantly, the CNS of FSD-C10-treated mice showed a shift of activated macrophages/microglia from the type 1 to type 2 status, elevated numbers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes, and increased levels of neurotrophic factors NT-3, GDNF and BDNF. FSD-C10-treated microglia significantly inhibited Th1/Th17 cell differentiation and increased the number of IL-10(+) CD4(+) T cells, and the conditioned medium from FSD-C10-treated microglia promoted OPC survival and oligodendrocyte maturation. Addition of FSD-C10 directly promoted remyelination in a chemical-induced demyelination model on organotypic slice culture, in a BDNF-dependent manner. Together, these findings demonstrate that FSD-C10 promotes neural repair through mechanisms that involved both immunomodulation and induction of neurotrophic factors

    Scutellaria baicalensis decreases ritonavir-induced nausea

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    BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, causes significant gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, even at low doses. This ritonavir-induced nausea could be related to its oxidative stress in the gut. Alleviation of drug-induced nausea is important in effectively increasing patients' compliance and improving their quality of life. Conventional anti-emetic drugs can only partially abate the symptoms in these patients, and their cost has also been a concern. Rats respond to nausea-producing emetic stimuli by increasing consumption of non-nutritive substances like kaolin or clay, a phenomenon known as pica. In this study, we used this rat pica model to evaluate the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis, a commonly used oriental herbal medicine, on ritonavir-induced nausea. RESULTS: Rats treated with 20 mg/kg ritonavir significant caused increases of kaolin consumption at 24 to 48 hr (P < 0.01). Pretreatment with 0.3 and 3 mg/kg Scutellaria baicalensis extract significantly decreased ritonavir-induced kaolin intake in a dose-related manner (P < 0.01). Compared to vehicle treatment, the extract completely prevented ritonavir-induced kaolin consumption at dose 3 mg/kg. The area under the curves (AUC) for kaolin intake from time 0 to 120 hr for vehicle only, ritonavir only, SbE 0.3 mg/kg plus ritonavir, and SbE 3 mg/kg plus ritonavir were 27.3 g•hr, 146.7 g•hr, 123.2 g•hr, and 32.7 g•hr, respectively. The reduction in area under the curves of kaolin intake from time 0 to 120 hr between ritonavir only and SbE 0.3 mg/kg plus ritonavir, ritonavir only and SbE 3 mg/kg plus ritonavir were 16.0% and 77.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Scutellaria baicalensis significantly attenuated ritonavir-induced pica, and demonstrated a potential in treating ritonavir-induced nausea

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in glaucomatous degeneration

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    Glaucoma is a kind of optic neuropathy mainly manifested in the permanent death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), atrophy of the optic nerve, and loss of visual ability. The main risk factors for glaucoma consist of the pathological elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and aging. Although the mechanism of glaucoma remains an open question, a theory related to mitochondrial dysfunction has been emerging in the last decade. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondrial respiratory chain are abnormally produced as a result of mitochondrial dysfunction. Oxidative stress takes place when the cellular antioxidant system fails to remove excessive ROS promptly. Meanwhile, more and more studies show that there are other common features of mitochondrial dysfunction in glaucoma, including damage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), defective mitochondrial quality control, ATP reduction, and other cellular changes, which are worth summarizing and further exploring. The purpose of this review is to explore mitochondrial dysfunction in the mechanism of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Based on the mechanism, the existing therapeutic options are summarized, including medications, gene therapy, and red-light therapy, which are promising to provide feasible neuroprotective ideas for the treatment of glaucoma


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    In the title mol­ecule, C16H10O4, all the non-H atoms are coplanar. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O contacts and π–π stacking inter­actions (the inter­planar distance is 3.43 Å)