452 research outputs found

    Oscar Wilde's Orientalism and Late Nineteenth-Century European Consumer Culture

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    Aquisi√ß√£o de preposi√ß√Ķes a e de em contextos de reg√™ncia verbal, nominal e adjetival: o caso dos aprendentes chineses

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    A presente disserta√ß√£o tem como objetivo identificar as dificuldades encontradas pelos alunos chineses em apreender e usar adequadamente as preposi√ß√Ķes a e de em contextos de reg√™ncia verbal, nominal e adjetival. Para a realiza√ß√£o do estudo, apresenta-se primeiro o enquadramento te√≥rico necess√°rio ao presente trabalho, incluindo-se uma vis√£o geral das preposi√ß√Ķes em Portugu√™s, refletindo sobre o valor sem√Ęntico e o emprego das preposi√ß√Ķes a e de, introduzindo o conceito de reg√™ncia e a rela√ß√£o entre reg√™ncia e preposi√ß√£o. Referem-se, tamb√©m, as preposi√ß√Ķes chinesas, a fim de identificar as diferen√ßas entre as preposi√ß√Ķes portuguesas e chinesas. Em seguida, combinando conceitos como l√≠ngua materna, interl√≠ngua, an√°lise de erros, etc., pretende-se analisar as causas das dificuldades dos aprendentes chineses na aquisi√ß√£o de preposi√ß√Ķes em Portugu√™s e identificar problemas t√≠picos no seu uso. Para tal, elaborou-se um question√°rio, que foi aplicado a estudantes chineses de PLE de diferentes n√≠veis e de diferentes Institui√ß√Ķes de ensino. Atrav√©s da an√°lise dos dados, podemos constatar que os contextos de reg√™ncia verbal e adjetival s√£o os mais dif√≠ceis e confusos para os aprendentes chineses. Por fim, apresentam-se algumas estrat√©gias para atenuar as dificuldades e melhorar a efici√™ncia da aprendizagem das preposi√ß√Ķes em Portugu√™s.This dissertation aims to find out the difficulties of Chinese students in correctly understanding and using prepositions a and de in the context of verbal, nominal and adjectival regency. In order to carry out this research, the theoretical framework involved in this work is first introduced, such as the general concept of Portuguese preposition, the semantic value and use of prepositions a and de, the concept of regency and the relationship between regency and preposition. Chinese prepositions are introduced for the sake of the identification of the differences between Portuguese and Chinese prepositions. Combined with linguistic knowledge, such as mother tongue, interlanguage, error analysis, etc., this paper analyzes the causes why Chinese learners have difficulty in learning Portuguese prepositions and points out typical mistakes. A questionnaire is prepared specifically for this topic, which is applied to Chinese PLE students at different levels and from different educational institutions. Through data analysis, we can clearly identify that the use of Portuguese prepositions in the context of verbal and adjective regency is the most difficult and confusing. Finally, some strategies are presented to solve the difficulties and improve the efficiency of learning Portuguese prepositions.Mestrado em Portugu√™s L√≠ngua Estrangeira/L√≠ngua Segund

    Adaptive digital watermarking scheme based on support vector machines and optimized genetic algorithm

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    Digital watermarking is an effective solution to the problem of copyright protection, thus maintaining the security of digital products in the network. An improved scheme to increase the robustness of embedded information on the basis of discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain is proposed in this study. The embedding process consisted of two main procedures. Firstly, the embedding intensity with support vector machines (SVMs) was adaptively strengthened by training 1600 image blocks which are of different texture and luminance. Secondly, the embedding position with the optimized genetic algorithm (GA) was selected. To optimize GA, the best individual in the first place of each generation directly went into the next generation, and the best individual in the second position participated in the crossover and the mutation process. The transparency reaches 40.5 when GA’s generation number is 200. A case study was conducted on a 256 × 256 standard Lena image with the proposed method. After various attacks (such as cropping, JPEG compression, Gaussian low-pass filtering (3, 0. 5), histogram equalization, and contrast increasing (0.5, 0.6)) on the watermarked image, the extracted watermark was compared with the original one. Results demonstrate that the watermark can be effectively recovered after these attacks. Even though the algorithm is weak against rotation attacks, it provides high quality in imperceptibility and robustness and hence it is a successful candidate for implementing novel image watermarking scheme meeting real timelines
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