36 research outputs found

    Phylogenetic tree of sNPF precursors and alignment analysis of sNPF sequences in parasitoid wasps and other insect species.

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    <p>Chrysidoidea sequences in phylogeny trees are indicated with blue circles; Ichneumonoidea sequences are indicated with light green squares; Chalcidoidea sequences are indicated with red triangles; Cynipoidea sequences are indicated with light blue rhombuses; Orussoidea with empty squares; Platygastroidea with empty rhombuses. Numbers above branches indicate phylogenies from amino acid sequences and only values above 50% are shown. The numbers of the paracopies carrying the motif are shown by the repeat numbers. Identities in alignments are highlighted in dark (100%) and in grey (80%~100%).</p

    The putative mature peptides in <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i>, <i>Fopius arisanus</i> and <i>Argochrysis armilla</i>.

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    <p>The putative mature peptides in <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i>, <i>Fopius arisanus</i> and <i>Argochrysis armilla</i>.</p

    Phylogenetic tree of AST-C/AST-CCC precursors and alignment analysis of AST-C/AST-CCC sequences in parasitoid wasps and other insect species.

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    <p>Chrysidoidea sequences in phylogeny trees are indicated with blue circles; Ichneumonoidea sequences are indicated with light green squares; Chalcidoidea sequences are indicated with red triangles; Cynipoidea sequences are indicated with light blue rhombuses; Orussoidea with empty squares; Platygastroidea with empty rhombuses. Numbers above branches indicate phylogenies from amino acid sequences and only values above 50% are shown. Identities in alignments are highlighted in dark (100%) and in grey (80%~100%).</p

    Overview of the presence of neuropeptide precursors of Hymenoptera parasitoid wasps and other insects.

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    <p>Blue, identified neuropeptide precursors; White, not found. AKH: adipokinetic hormone; ACP: AKH/corazonin-relate peptide; AST: allatostatin; AVLP: arginine-vasopressin-like peptide; CAPA: cardioacceleratory peptide 2b; CCAP: crustacean cardioactive peptide; DH: diuretic hormone; EH: eclosion hormone; ETH: ecdysis triggering hormone; FMRFa: FMRFamide-like peptide; ILP: insulin-like peptide; ITP: ion transport peptide; ITPL: ITP-like peptide; NPF: neuropeptide F; NPLP1: neuropeptide-like precursor 1; PDF: pigment dispersing factor; PTTH: prothoracicotropic hormone; sNPF: short neuropeptide F. The data of other insects are mainly referred from <i>D</i>. <i>melanogaster</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref005" target="_blank">5</a>], <i>An</i>. <i>gambiae</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref006" target="_blank">6</a>], <i>A</i>. <i>mellifera</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref007" target="_blank">7</a>], <i>B</i>. <i>mori</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref008" target="_blank">8</a>], <i>T</i>. <i>castaneum</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref009" target="_blank">9</a>], <i>Ac</i>. <i>pisum</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref010" target="_blank">10</a>], <i>R</i>. <i>prolixus</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref011" target="_blank">11</a>], <i>Z</i>. <i>nevadensis</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref012" target="_blank">12</a>], <i>L</i>. <i>migratoria</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref012" target="_blank">12</a>], <i>N</i>. <i>lugens</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref013" target="_blank">13</a>], <i>C</i>. <i>suppressalis</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0193561#pone.0193561.ref015" target="_blank">15</a>].</p

    Schematic diagrams for CAPA/PK genes in parasitoid wasps and other insect species.

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    <p>Putative bioactive mature peptides are shown as color coded boxes for each peptide family (PVKs, PKs and trypto-PKs).</p

    <i>In silico</i> prediction of neuropeptides in Hymenoptera parasitoid wasps

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    <div><p>Parasitoid wasps of the order Hymenoptera, the most diverse groups of animals, are important natural enemies of arthropod hosts in natural ecosystems and can be used in biological control. To date, only one neuropeptidome of a parasitoid wasp, <i>Nasonia vitripennis</i>, has been identified. This study aimed to identify more neuropeptides of parasitoid wasps, by using a well-established workflow that was previously adopted for predicting insect neuropeptide sequences. Based on publicly accessible databases, totally 517 neuropeptide precursors from 24 parasitoid wasp species were identified; these included five neuropeptides (CNMamide, FMRFamide-like, ITG-like, ion transport peptide-like and orcokinin B) that were identified for the first time in parasitoid wasps, to our knowledge. Next, these neuropeptides from parasitoid wasps were compared with those from other insect species. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the divergence of AST-CCC within Hymenoptera. Further, the encoding patterns of CAPA/PK family genes were found to be different between Hymenoptera species and other insect species. Some neuropeptides that were not found in some parasitoid superfamilies (<i>e</i>.<i>g</i>., sulfakinin), or considerably divergent between different parasitoid superfamilies (<i>e</i>.<i>g</i>., sNPF) might be related to distinct physiological processes in the parasitoid life. Information of neuropeptide sequences in parasitoid wasps can be useful for better understanding the phylogenetic relationships of Hymenoptera and further elucidating the physiological functions of neuropeptide signaling systems in parasitoid wasps.</p></div

    Phylogenetic tree of AST-CC precursors and alignment analysis of AST-CC sequences in parasitoid wasps and other insect species.

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    <p>Chrysidoidea sequences in phylogeny trees are indicated with blue circles; Ichneumonoidea sequences are indicated with light green squares; Chalcidoidea sequences are indicated with red triangles; Cynipoidea sequences are indicated with light blue rhombuses; Orussoidea with empty squares. Numbers above branches indicate phylogenies from amino acid sequences and only values above 50% are shown. Identities in alignments are highlighted in dark (100%) and in grey (80%~100%).</p

    Poly I:C Enhances Susceptibility to Secondary Pulmonary Infections by Gram-Positive Bacteria

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    <div><p>Secondary bacterial pneumonias are a frequent complication of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, but the mechanisms underlying viral-induced susceptibility to bacterial infections are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether the host's response against the viral infection, independent of the injury caused by the virus, results in impairment of antibacterial host defense. Here, we sought to determine whether the induction of an β€œantiviral” immune state using various viral recognition receptor ligands was sufficient to result in decreased ability to combat common bacterial pathogens of the lung. Using a mouse model, animals were administered polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or Toll-like 7 ligand (imiquimod or gardiquimod) intranasally, followed by intratracheal challenge with <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i>. We found that animals pre-exposed to poly I:C displayed impaired bacterial clearance and increased mortality. Poly I:C-exposed animals also had decreased ability to clear methicillin-resistant <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>. Furthermore, we showed that activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and Retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG-I)/Cardif pathways, which recognize viral nucleic acids in the form of dsRNA, both contribute to poly I:C mediated impairment of bacterial clearance. Finally, we determined that poly I:C administration resulted in significant induction of type I interferons (IFNs), whereas the elimination of type I IFN signaling improved clearance and survival following secondary bacterial pneumonia. Collectively, these results indicate that in the lung, poly I:C administration is sufficient to impair pulmonary host defense against clinically important gram-positive bacterial pathogens, which appears to be mediated by type I IFNs.</p></div

    Association Study to Evaluate FoxO1 and FoxO3 Gene in CHD in Han Chinese

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in China. Genetic factors that predispose individuals to CHD are unclear. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the variation of FoxOs, a novel genetic factor associated with longevity, was associated with CHD in Han Chinese populations.</p><p>Methods</p><p>1271 CHD patients and 1287 age-and sex-matched controls from Beijing and Harbin were included. We selected four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FoxO1 (rs2755209, rs2721072, rs4325427 and rs17592371) and two tagging SNPs of FoxO3 (rs768023 and rs1268165). And the genotypes of these SNPs were determined in both CHD patients and non-CHD controls.</p><p>Results</p><p>For population from Beijing, four SNPs of FoxO1 and two SNPs of FoxO3 were found not to be associated with CHD (p>0.05). And this was validated in the other population from Harbin (p>0.05). After combining the two geographically isolated case-control populations, the results showed that the six SNPs did not necessarily predispose to CHD in Han Chinese(p>0.05). In stratified analysis according to gender, the history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and the metabolic syndrome, we further explored that neither the variants of FoxO1 nor the variants of FoxO3 might be associated with CHD (p>0.05).</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>The variants of FoxO1 and FoxO3 may not increase the prevalence of CHD in Han Chinese population.</p></div

    Examination of type I IFNs in poly I:C-treated animals.

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    <p>A. Animals were given i.n. poly I:C (pIC, 50 Β΅g), gardiquimod (100 Β΅g), or saline daily for 3 days. Lungs were collected for analysis of IFN-Ξ±4 in whole lung homogenates by ELISA. Mean and SD are graphed, nβ€Š=β€Š4/group. *p<0.05, poly I:C versus saline group. B. Wildtype (<i>Ifnar</i><sup>+/+</sup>) and <i>Ifnar</i><sup>βˆ’/βˆ’</sup> animals were administered i.n. poly I:C for 3 days, followed by i.t. <i>S. pneumoniae</i> (7Γ—10<sup>4</sup> CFU). At 48 hours, lungs were collected for enumeration of CFU. nβ€Š=β€Š5/group. *p<0.05 C. Wildtype animals were administered i.n. poly I:C for 3 days (day 1, 2, and 3), followed by i.t. <i>S. pneumoniae</i> (2Γ—10<sup>4</sup> CFU) on day 4. Animals were given i.p. anti-IFNAR antibody or Control IgG (1.5 mg on day 1, 0.75 mg on day 3, and 0.75 mg on day 5). Lungs were harvested at 48 hours after <i>S. pneumoniae</i> infection. *p<0.05.</p
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