83 research outputs found

    津田修二:先天性臍帶ヘルニアに就て 正誤表(第11卷 第3號 綜説欄所載)

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    The primary 2-DE gel maps at least three biological replicates for control, dehydration treatments (18 h, 24 h and 48 h) and rehydration treatment (R24 h) in Longchun 23. (TIF 1707 kb

    Reactor performance and microbial characteristics of CANON process with step-wise increasing of C/N ratio

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    <p>In this study, the nitrogen removal performance and microbial characteristics of completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was investigated with a step-wise increasing of C/N ratio (0.5, 1, 2 and 4) in a membrane bioreactor. The microbial distribution of aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic AOB (AAOB) was analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results showed that the denitrification ratio rose up correspondingly with the increase of influent C/N, and nitrogen removal rate (NRR) reached the maximum when C/N was 1 due to the harmonious work of denitrification and CANON. However, NRR decreased when influent C/N was more than 2. The threshold C/N ratio of CANON process was 2.2; so the sewage with a high C/N ratio should be pretreated by combining with pre-oxidation of organics or anaerobic-energy-producing process. FISH results showed decreasing numbers of both AOB and AAOB with the addition of organics.</p

    Organics- and Surfactant-Free Molten Salt Medium Controlled Synthesis of Pt‑M (M = Cu and Pd) Bi- and Trimetallic Nanocubes and Nanosheets

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    We present a novel synthetic strategy for the shape-controlled synthesis of Pt-based alloy nanoparticles (NPs) in inorganic molten salt without using any organic surfactants or capping agents. Graphene oxide (GO) was chosen as the stabilizer in the inorganic molten salt synthetic strategy, due to the existence of various oxygen-containing functional groups on its surface, which adsorb, anchor, and stabilize the metal ions or NPs. After GO was added in molten salt, the PtPd nanosheets were formed on its surface in H<sub>2</sub> atmosphere. In addition, when KI was chosen as the shape-inducing agent to selectively adsorb on and fully protect the (100) facets of alloys, PtPd nanocubes with core–shell structure, PtCu nanohemicubes, and PtPdCu nanocubes were prepared successfully on the surface of GO in molten salt. Introduction of GO as the stabilizer in molten salt proves a new approach in synthesis of Pt-based nanocrystals with controlled morphologies

    Performance and influence factors of completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a biofilter packed with volcanic rocks

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    <div><p>Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was considered as one of the most efficient and economical nitrogen removal processes, which was suitable for treating wastewater with low ratio of carbon to nitrogen. In this study, an enlarging start-up strategy for CANON process was proposed, and a 40-L CANON reactor was successfully started by seeding 2-L mature biofilm containing both aerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonia loading rate and the ratio of air inflow to water inflow (<i>Q</i><sub>air</sub>/<i>Q</i><sub>water</sub>) on nitrogen removal performance were investigated. The distribution of AerAOB and AnAOB was analysed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The system reached a maximum NRR of 3.11 kg N m<sup>−3</sup> d<sup>−1</sup> with a removal efficiency of 89.5%, and the average value in steady state was 2.42±0.26 and (83.07 ± 6.89)%, respectively. Analysis of influence factors showed the important role of high DO (around 5 mg L<sup>−1</sup>), for the high-rate nitrogen removal, and the <i>Q</i><sub>air</sub>/<i>Q</i><sub>water</sub> should be controlled at 28–40 for stable operation. FISH results suggested that AerAOB and AnAOB predominated in the reactor, with proportions of 46.8% and 39.3%, respectively. This study demonstrated that the biofilter operated with high effluent DO was a feasible setup for CANON process.</p></div

    Improving Surface Adsorption via Shape Control of Hematite α‑Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> Nanoparticles for Sensitive Dopamine Sensors

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    α-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) with morphologies varying from shuttle to drum were synthesized through an anion-assisted and surfactant-free hydrothermal method by simply varying the ratios of ethanol and water in solvent. Control experiments show that the structural evolution can be attributed to a small-molecular-induced anisotropic growth mechanism in which the growth rate of α-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> NPs along the <i>a</i>-, <i>b</i>-, or <i>c</i>-axis was well-controlled. The detailed structural analysis through the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) indicated that shuttle-like Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> NP surface was covered by high-density atomic steps, which endowed them with the enhanced adsorption and sensor ability toward dopamine (DA). The XPS characterizations indicated that the percentages of the O<sub>C</sub> component follow the order of shuttle-like Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (S-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> for short) > pseudoshuttle-like Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (Ps-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> for short) > polyhedron-like Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (Ph-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> for short) > drum-like Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (D-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> for short). Benefits from these structural advantages, the S-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> NPs–Nafion composite electrode exhibited remarkable electrochemical detection ability with a wide liner range from 0.2 μM to 0.107 mM and a low detection limit of 31.25 nM toward DA in the presence of interferents

    Effect of CuO nanoparticles on ammonia removal and EPS secretion of CANON sludge in the presence of nitrite suppression

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    <p>Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was an innovative technology for nitrogen removal from wastewater. It is necessary to clear the impact of CuO nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on CANON process since the widespread utilize increased their opportunity for entering into wastewater. In this study, the short-term and long-term effects of CuO NPs on the ammonia removal and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion were analyzed in the presence of nitrite, with the CuO NPs of 0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg L<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. Results suggested that low concentration of CuO NPs could enhance the ammonia removal. The inhibition threshold of CuO NPs on CANON sludge within short-term exposure was 20 mg L<sup>−1</sup>, while that of long-term exposure was 10 mg L<sup>−1</sup>. Both short-term and long-term exposure within CuO NPs significantly impacted the ammonia removal, and both the nitrite and CuO NPs influenced the EPS secretion.</p

    Structural and Electronic Stabilization of PtNi Concave Octahedral Nanoparticles by P Doping for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Alkaline Electrolytes

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    The enhancement in the catalytic activity of PtM (transition metals, TMs) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) results from the electronic structure of Pt being modified by the TM. However, the oxidation of the TM would lead to the electronegativity difference between Pt and TM being much lowered, which induces a decrease in the number of electrons transferred from the TM to Pt, resulting in excessive oxygenated species accumulating on the surface of Pt, thus deteriorating their performance. In this work, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of PtNi (Pt<sub>68</sub>Ni<sub>32</sub>) concave octahedral NPs (CONPs) in alkaline electrolytes is much improved by doping small amounts of phosphorus. The P-doped PtNi CONPs (P-PtNi) show about 2 and 10 times enhancement for ORR compared to PtNi and commercial Pt/C catalysts. The high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping characterizations reveal that the P dopant uniformly distributes throughout the CONPs, Pt mainly locates at the edges and corners, whereas Ni situates at the center, forming a P-doped Pt-frame@Ni quasi-core–shell CONP. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that the P dopant obviously increases the electron density of Pt compared with that of PtNi NPs, which contributes to the stabilization of the electronic structure of PtNi CONPs, thus restraining the excessive HO<sub>2</sub><sup>–</sup> species produced on the catalysts, which endow them with a high catalytic performance in the ORR. In addition, the P attached to the Ni sites in the PtNi NPs partially prevents the Ni atoms being oxidized by the external O species, which is conducive to the structural and electrochemical stability of the PtNi NPs during the ORR. The present results provide a new insight into the development of ORR catalysts with low utilization of Pt

    Pd-Catalyzed Dimethylation of Tyrosine-Derived Picolinamide for Synthesis of (<i>S</i>)‑<i>N</i>‑Boc-2,6-dimethyltyrosine and Its Analogues

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    A short and efficient synthesis of (<i>S</i>)-<i>N</i>-Boc-2,6-dimethyltyrosine utilizing palladium-catalyzed directed C–H functionalization is described. This represents the first general method for the <i>ortho</i>-dimethylation of tyrosine derivatives and offers a practical approach for preparing this synthetically important building block. Notably, throughout the reaction sequence no racemization occurs at the susceptible α-chiral centers