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    We estimate China's rural, urban and overall income distributions using grouped data from 1985-2001. We show how the distributions evolve as well as examine trends in welfare indices. We find the growing rural-urban income gap and increases in inequality within either sector have been equally responsible for overall inequality growth.Consumer/Household Economics,

    China's Income Distribution and Inequality

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    We use a new method to estimate China’s income distributions based on publicly available interval summary statistics from China’s largest national household survey. We examine rural, urban, and overall income distributions for each year from 1985-2001. By estimating the entire distributions, we can show how the distributions change directly as well as examine trends in traditional welfare indices such as the Gini. We find that inequality has increased substantially in both rural and urban areas. Using an inter-temporal decomposition of aggregate inequality, we determine that increases in inequality within the rural and urban sectors and the growing gap in rural and urban incomes have been equally responsible for the growth in overall inequality over the last two decades. However, the rural-urban income gap has played an increasingly important role in recent years. In contrast, only the growth of inequality within rural and urban areas is responsible for the increase in inequality in the United States, where the overall inequality is close to that of China. As a robustness check, we show that consumption inequality (which may be a proxy for permanent income inequality) in urban areas also rose considerablyincome distribution, inequality, maximum entropy

    A parallel structure transient response algorithm using independent substructure response computation

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    An algorithm for parallel computation of transient response for structures is presented in which responses of substructures are computed independently for dozens of time steps at a time, and these substructure responses are then corrected to obtain the response of the overall coupled structure. The correction of the uncoupled substructure responses only requires the responses computed for interfaces at occasional points in time, and is done independently for different substructures in a very efficient procedure. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the method and show the accuracy of the method

    Nonlinear Dynamics of Particles Excited by an Electric Curtain

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    The use of the electric curtain (EC) has been proposed for manipulation and control of particles in various applications. The EC studied in this paper is called the 2-phase EC, which consists of a series of long parallel electrodes embedded in a thin dielectric surface. The EC is driven by an oscillating electric potential of a sinusoidal form where the phase difference of the electric potential between neighboring electrodes is 180 degrees. We investigate the one- and two-dimensional nonlinear dynamics of a particle in an EC field. The form of the dimensionless equations of motion is codimension two, where the dimensionless control parameters are the interaction amplitude (AA) and damping coefficient (β\beta). Our focus on the one-dimensional EC is primarily on a case of fixed β\beta and relatively small AA, which is characteristic of typical experimental conditions. We study the nonlinear behaviors of the one-dimensional EC through the analysis of bifurcations of fixed points. We analyze these bifurcations by using Floquet theory to determine the stability of the limit cycles associated with the fixed points in the Poincar\'e sections. Some of the bifurcations lead to chaotic trajectories where we then determine the strength of chaos in phase space by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent. In the study of the two-dimensional EC we independently look at bifurcation diagrams of variations in AA with fixed β\beta and variations in β\beta with fixed AA. Under certain values of β\beta and AA, we find that no stable trajectories above the surface exists; such chaotic trajectories are described by a chaotic attractor, for which the the largest Lyapunov exponent is found. We show the well-known stable oscillations between two electrodes come into existence for variations in AA and the transitions between several distinct regimes of stable motion for variations in β\beta

    Bridging the AI Inventorship Gap

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    In Thaler v. Vidal, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruled that an artificial intelligence (AI) machine cannot be an inventor under patent law. This decision leaves open the question of whether a natural person can be the legal inventor of AI-generated inventions. This is a pressing question because it decides whether AI-generated inventions are patentable, as no patent rights can exist without an inventor. Scholars have proposed two doctrines that might resolve this question: (1) the doctrine of simultaneous conception and reduction to practice and (2) the doctrine of first to recognize and appreciate. This Note analyzes the two doctrines and argues that neither doctrine readily applies to AI-generated inventions, thereby leaving an “inventorship gap.” Because the current patent system is ill-equipped to deal with the inventorship of AI-generated inventions, Congress should adopt and repurpose copyright law’s work-for-hire doctrine and recognize the natural person using the invention-generating AI as the legal inventor of those inventions. Doing so bridges the inventorship gap, offers certainty as to the patentability of AI-generated inventions, and facilitates the goals of the patent system