53,297 research outputs found

    Universal attraction force-inspired freeform surface modeling for 3D sketching

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    This paper presents a novel freeform surface modeling method to construct a freeform surface from 3D sketch. The approach is inspired by Newton’s universal attraction force law to construct a surface model from rough boundary curves and unorganized interior characteristic curves which may cross the boundary curves or not. Based on these unorganized curves, an initial surface can be obtained for conceptual design and it can be improved later in a commercial package. The approach has been tested with examples and it is capable of dealing with unorganized design curves for surface modeling

    Synthetic vision and emotion calculation in intelligent virtual human modeling

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    The virtual human technique already can provide vivid and believable human behaviour in more and more scenarios. Virtual humans are expected to replace real humans in hazardous situations to undertake tests and feed back valuable information. This paper will introduce a virtual human with a novel collision-based synthetic vision, short-term memory model and a capability to implement the emotion calculation and decision making. The virtual character based on this model can ‘see’ what is in his field of view (FOV) and remember those objects. After that, a group of affective computing equations have been introduced. These equations have been implemented into a proposed emotion calculation process to enlighten emotion for virtual intelligent huma

    Sketching-out virtual humans: A smart interface for human modelling and animation

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    In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive interface for sketching out 3D virtual humans and animation. The user draws stick figure key frames first and chooses one for “fleshing-out” with freehand body contours. The system automatically constructs a plausible 3D skin surface from the rendered figure, and maps it onto the posed stick figures to produce the 3D character animation. A “creative model-based method” is developed, which performs a human perception process to generate 3D human bodies of various body sizes, shapes and fat distributions. In this approach, an anatomical 3D generic model has been created with three distinct layers: skeleton, fat tissue, and skin. It can be transformed sequentially through rigid morphing, fatness morphing, and surface fitting to match the original 2D sketch. An auto-beautification function is also offered to regularise the 3D asymmetrical bodies from users’ imperfect figure sketches. Our current system delivers character animation in various forms, including articulated figure animation, 3D mesh model animation, 2D contour figure animation, and even 2D NPR animation with personalised drawing styles. The system has been formally tested by various users on Tablet PC. After minimal training, even a beginner can create vivid virtual humans and animate them within minutes

    Sketching-out virtual humans: From 2d storyboarding to immediate 3d character animation

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    Virtual beings are playing a remarkable role in today’s public entertainment, while ordinary users are still treated as audiences due to the lack of appropriate expertise, equipment, and computer skills. In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive storyboarding interface, which enables users to sketch-out 3D virtual humans, 2D/3D animations, and character intercommunication. We devised an intuitive “stick figurefleshing-outskin mapping” graphical animation pipeline, which realises the whole process of key framing, 3D pose reconstruction, virtual human modelling, motion path/timing control, and the final animation synthesis by almost pure 2D sketching. A “creative model-based method” is developed, which emulates a human perception process, to generate the 3D human bodies of variational sizes, shapes, and fat distributions. Meanwhile, our current system also supports the sketch-based crowd animation and the storyboarding of the 3D multiple character intercommunication. This system has been formally tested by various users on Tablet PC. After minimal training, even a beginner can create vivid virtual humans and animate them within minutes

    Human motion modeling and simulation by anatomical approach

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    To instantly generate desired infinite realistic human motion is still a great challenge in virtual human simulation. In this paper, the novel emotion effected motion classification and anatomical motion classification are presented, as well as motion capture and parameterization methods. The framework for a novel anatomical approach to model human motion in a HTR (Hierarchical Translations and Rotations) file format is also described. This novel anatomical approach in human motion modelling has the potential to generate desired infinite human motion from a compact motion database. An architecture for the real-time generation of new motions is also propose

    What's the evidence that NICE guidance has been implemented? Results from a national evaluation using time series analysis, audit of patients' notes, and interviews

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    OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent and pattern of implementation of guidance issued by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE). DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis, review of case notes, survey, and interviews. SETTING: Acute and primary care trusts in England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: All primary care prescribing, hospital pharmacies; a random sample of 20 acute trusts, 17 mental health trusts, and 21 primary care trusts; and senior clinicians and managers from five acute trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of prescribing and use of procedures and medical devices relative to evidence based guidance. RESULTS: 6308 usable patient audit forms were returned. Implementation of NICE guidance varied by trust and by topic. Prescribing of some taxanes for cancer (P <0.002) and orlistat for obesity (P <0.001) significantly increased in line with guidance. Prescribing of drugs for Alzheimer’s disease and prophylactic extraction of wisdom teeth showed trends consistent with, but not obviously a consequence of, the guidance. Prescribing practice often did not accord with the details of the guidance. No change was apparent in the use of hearing aids, hip prostheses, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, laparoscopic hernia repair, and laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery after NICE guidance had been issued. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of NICE guidance has been variable. Guidance seems more likely to be adopted when there is strong professional support, a stable and convincing evidence base, and no increased or unfunded costs, in organisations that have established good systems for tracking guidance implementation and where the professionals involved are not isolated. Guidance needs to be clear and reflect the clinical context

    Coulomb Distortion Effects for Electron or Positron Induced (e,e)(e,e') Reactions in the Quasielastic Region

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    In response to recent experimental studies we investigate Coulomb distortion effects on (e,e)(e,e') reactions from medium and heavy nuclei for the case of electrons and positrons. We extend our previously reported full DWBA treatment of Coulomb distortions to the case of positrons for the 208Pb(e,e)^{208}Pb(e,e') reaction in the quasielastic region for a particular nuclear model. In addition, we use previously reported successful approaches to treating Coulomb corrections in an approximate way to calculate the Coulomb distortion effects for (e,e)(e,e') reactions for both electrons and positrons for the case of a simple nuclear model for quasielastic knock-out of nucleons. With these results in hand we develop a simple {\em ad-hoc} approximation for use in analyzing experiments, and discuss methods of extracting the ``longitudinal structure function" which enters into evaluation of the Coulomb sum rule. These techniques are generally valid for lepton induced reactions on nuclei with momentum transfers greater than approximately 300 MeV/cMeV/c.Comment: 18 pages, 6 figure
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