143 research outputs found

    Features of Cryptic Promoters and Their Varied Reliance on Bromodomain-Containing Factors

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    The Set2-Rpd3S pathway is important for the control of transcription memory. Mutation of components of this pathway results in cryptic transcription initiation within the coding region of approximately 30% of yeast genes. Specifically, deletion of the Set2 histone methyltransferase or Rco1, a component of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex leads to hyperacetylation of certain open reading frames (ORFs). We used this mutant as a system to study the role of histone modifications and co-activator recruitment in preinitiation complex (PIC) formation. Specifically, we looked at the dependence of promoters on the bromodomain-containing RSC complex and the Bdf1 protein. We found that the dependence of cryptic promoters for these proteins varied. Overall, our data indicate that cryptic promoters are independently regulated, and their activation is dependent on factors that govern gene activation at canonical promoters

    Yeast Sgf73/Ataxin-7 serves to anchor the deubiquitination module into both SAGA and Slik(SALSA) HAT complexes

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    Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) is a physically devastating, genetically inherited disorder characterized by abnormal brain function that results in the progressive loss of the ability to coordinate movements. There are many types of SCAs as there are various gene mutations that can cause this disease. SCA types 1–3, 6–10, 12, and 17 result from a trinucleotide repeat expansion in the DNA-coding sequence. Intriguingly, recent work has demonstrated that increased trinucleotde expansions in the SCA7 gene result in defect in the function of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex. The SCA7 gene encodes a subunit of the SAGA complex. This subunit is conserved in yeast as the SGF73 gene. We demonstrate that Sgf73 is required to recruit the histone deubiquitination module into both SAGA and the related SliK(SALSA) complex, and to maintain levels of histone ubiquitination, which is necessary for regulation of transcription at a number of genes

    The ATAC Acetyltransferase Complex Coordinates MAP Kinases to Regulate JNK Target Genes

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    SummaryIn response to extracellular cues, signal transduction activates downstream transcription factors like c-Jun to induce expression of target genes. We demonstrate that the ATAC (Ada two A containing) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex serves as a transcriptional cofactor for c-Jun at the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) target genes Jra and chickadee. ATAC subunits are required for c-Jun occupancy of these genes and for H4K16 acetylation at the Jra enhancer, promoter, and transcribed sequences. Under conditions of osmotic stress, ATAC colocalizes with c-Jun, recruits the upstream kinases Misshapen, MKK4, and JNK, and suppresses further activation of JNK. Relocalization of these MAPKs and suppression of JNK activation by ATAC are dependent on the CG10238 subunit of ATAC. Thus, ATAC governs the transcriptional response to MAP kinase signaling by serving as both a coactivator of transcription and as a suppressor of upstream signaling

    Determining Protein Complex Connectivity Using a Probabilistic Deletion Network Derived from Quantitative Proteomics

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    Protein complexes are key molecular machines executing a variety of essential cellular processes. Despite the availability of genome-wide protein-protein interaction studies, determining the connectivity between proteins within a complex remains a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a method that is able to predict the relationship of proteins within a stable protein complex. We employed a combination of computational approaches and a systematic collection of quantitative proteomics data from wild-type and deletion strain purifications to build a quantitative deletion-interaction network map and subsequently convert the resulting data into an interdependency-interaction model of a complex. We applied this approach to a data set generated from components of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rpd3 histone deacetylase complexes, which consists of two distinct small and large complexes that are held together by a module consisting of Rpd3, Sin3 and Ume1. The resulting representation reveals new protein-protein interactions and new submodule relationships, providing novel information for mapping the functional organization of a complex

    A role for Snf2-related nucleosome-spacing enzymes in genome-wide nucleosome organization

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    The positioning of nucleosomes within the coding regions of eukaryotic genes is aligned with respect to transcriptional start sites. This organization is likely to influence many genetic processes, requiring access to the underlying DNA. Here, we show that the combined action of Isw1 and Chd1 nucleosome-spacing enzymes is required to maintain this organization. In the absence of these enzymes, regular positioning of the majority of nucleosomes is lost. Exceptions include the region upstream of the promoter, the +1 nucleosome, and a subset of locations distributed throughout coding regions where other factors are likely to be involved. These observations indicate that adenosine triphosphate-dependent remodeling enzymes are responsible for directing the positioning of the majority of nucleosomes within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome
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