24 research outputs found

    Increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in human pituitary tumors

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    PURPOSE: Subsets of pituitary tumors exhibit an aggressive clinical courses and recur despite surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Because modulation of the immune response through inhibition of T-cell checkpoints has led to durable clinical responses in multiple malignancies, we explored whether pituitary adenomas express immune-related biomarkers that could suggest suitability for immunotherapy. Specifically, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has emerged as a potential biomarker whose expression may portend more favorable responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapies. We thus investigated the expression of PD-L1 in pituitary adenomas. METHODS: PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were evaluated in 48 pituitary tumors, including functioning and non-functioning adenomas as well as atypical and recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte populations were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Pituitary tumors express variable levels of PD-L1 transcript and protein. PD-L1 RNA and protein expression were significantly increased in functioning (growth hormone and prolactin-expressing) pituitary adenomas compared to non-functioning (null cell and silent gonadotroph) adenomas. Moreover, primary pituitary adenomas harbored higher levels of PD-L1 mRNA compared to recurrent tumors. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were observed in all pituitary tumors and were positively correlated with increased PD-L1 expression, particularly in the functional subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Human pituitary adenomas harbor PD-L1 across subtypes, with significantly higher expression in functioning adenomas compared to non-functioning adenomas. This expression is accompanied by the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. These findings suggest the existence of an immune response to pituitary tumors and raise the possibility of considering checkpoint blockade immunotherapy in cases refractory to conventional management

    Prospective Safety Surveillance of GH-Deficient Adults: Comparison of GH-Treated vs Untreated Patients.

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    Context:In clinical practice, the safety profile of GH replacement therapy for GH-deficient adults compared with no replacement therapy is unknown.Objective:The objective of this study was to compare adverse events (AEs) in GH-deficient adults who were GH-treated with those in GH-deficient adults who did not receive GH replacement.Design and Setting:This was a prospective observational study in the setting of US clinical practices.Patients and Outcome Measures:AEs were compared between GH-treated (n = 1988) and untreated (n = 442) GH-deficient adults after adjusting for baseline group differences and controlling the false discovery rate. The standardized mortality ratio was calculated using US mortality rates.Results:After a mean follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no significant difference in rates of death, cancer, intracranial tumor growth or recurrence, diabetes, or cardiovascular events in GH-treated compared with untreated patients. The standardized mortality ratio was not increased in either group. Unexpected AEs (GH-treated vs untreated, P ≤ .05) included insomnia (6.4% vs 2.7%), dyspnea (4.2% vs 2.0%), anxiety (3.4% vs 0.9%), sleep apnea (3.3% vs 0.9%), and decreased libido (2.1% vs 0.2%). Some of these AEs were related to baseline risk factors (including obesity and cardiopulmonary disease), higher GH dose, or concomitant GH side effects.Conclusions:In GH-deficient adults, there was no evidence for a GH treatment effect on death, cancer, intracranial tumor recurrence, diabetes, or cardiovascular events, although the follow-up period was of insufficient duration to be conclusive for these long-term events. The identification of unexpected GH-related AEs reinforces the fact that patient selection and GH dose titration are important to ensure safety of adult GH replacement

    Prevalence and Characteristics of Self-Reported Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Nonorgan-Specific Manifestations in US Sarcoidosis Patients: A Nationwide Registry Study

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    Little is known about the prevalence, clinical characteristics and impact of hypothyroidism in patients with sarcoidosis. We aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical features of hypothyroidism and its relation to organ involvement and other clinical manifestations in patients with sarcoidosis. We conducted a national registry-based study investigating 3835 respondents to the Sarcoidosis Advanced Registry for Cures Questionnaire between June 2014 and August 2019. This registry is based on a self-reported, web-based questionnaire that provides data related to demographics, diagnostics, sarcoidosis manifestations and treatment. We compared sarcoidosis patients with and without self-reported hypothyroidism. We used multivariable logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders to determine the association of hypothyroidism with nonorgan-specific manifestations. 14% of the sarcoidosis patients self-reported hypothyroidism and were generally middle-aged white women. Hypothyroid patients had more comorbid conditions and were more likely to have multiorgan sarcoidosis involvement, especially with cutaneous, ocular, joints, liver and lacrimal gland involvement. Self-reported hypothyroidism was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.3, 95% CI 1.01–1.6), antidepressant use (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.7), obesity (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4–2.1), sleep apnoea (aOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2), chronic fatigue syndrome (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–2) and was borderline associated with fibromyalgia (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1–1.8). Physical impairment was more common in patients with hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a frequent comorbidity in sarcoidosis patients that might be a potentially reversible contributor to fatigue, depression and physical impairment in this population. We recommend considering routine screening for hypothyroidism in sarcoidosis patients especially in those with multiorgan sarcoidosis, fatigue and depression

    Assessment of primary cancers in GH-treated adult hypopituitary patients: an analysis from the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study

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    Objective: GH and IGFs have mitogenic properties, causing speculation that GH treatment could increase risk of malignancy. While studies in GH-treated childhood cancer survivors have suggested a slight increase in second neoplasms, studies in GH-treated adults have been equivocal. Design: Incidence of de novo and second cancers was evaluated in 6840 GH-treated and 940 non GH-treated adult patients in the Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study pharmacoepidemiological database. Methods: Evident cancer cases were evaluated in the main analysis, with sensitivity analyses including probable and possible cancers. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancers were calculated using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results for the USA and GLOBOCAN for all other countries. Results: During the mean follow-up of 3.7 years/GH-treated patient, 142 evident cancer cases were identified, giving an overall SIR of 0.88 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.04); 95% CIs included the value of 1.0 for each country examined. The SIR for GH-treated patients from the USA (71 cases) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.73-1.18), and for non GH-treated patients from the USA (27 cases) was 1.16 (95% CI 0.76-1.69). For GH-treated patients from the USA aged < 35 years, the SIR (six cases) was 3.79 (1.39-8.26), with SIR not elevated for all other age categories; SIR for patients from the USA with childhood onset (CO) GH deficiency (GHD) was 2.74 (95% CI 1.18-5.41). The SIR for colorectal cancer in GH-treated patients (11 cases) was 0.60 (95% CI 0.30-1.08). Conclusions: With relatively short follow-up, the overall primary cancer risk in 6840 patients receiving GH as adults was not increased. Elevated SIRs were found for subgroups in the USA cohort defined by age < 35 years or CO GHD

    Pituitary dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been precisely determined, and conflicting results have been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the prevalence of pituitary insufficiency after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and to focus on basal serum and dynamic test differences. METHODS: The prevalence of pituitary dysfunction was quantified at 3 to 6 months and >6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Proportions were transformed with the logit transformation. A subgroup analysis was performed focusing on the differences in outcome between basal serum and dynamic tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and secondary adrenal insufficiency. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of hypopituitarism differed considerably between studies, ranging from 0.05 to 0.45 in studies performed between 3 and 6 months after the event and from 0 to 0.55 in long-term studies (>6 months), with pooled frequencies of 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.43) and 0.25 (95% CI: 0.16-0.36), respectively. Pooled frequency of GHD at 3 to 6 months was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.08-0.24). At >6 months, GHD prevalence was 0.19 (95% CI: 0.13-0.26) overall, but ranged from 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06-0.33) with the insulin tolerance test to 0.25 (95% CI: 0.15-0.36) using the growth hormone releasing hormone 1 arginine test. CONCLUSION: Hypopituitarism is a common complication in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with GHD being the most prevalent diagnosis. We showed that variations in prevalence rates in the literature are partly due to methodological differences among pituitary function tests

    Incidence of second neoplasm in childhood cancer survivors treated with GH: an analysis of GeNeSIS and HypoCCS

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    Objective: Childhood cancer survivors are commonly treated with GH for GH deficiency that develops either as a result of primary malignancy or its treatment. One study - the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) demonstrated increased risk of second neoplasm (SN) in GH-treated childhood cancer survivors compared with non-GH treated, after adjusting for key risk factors. We assessed the incidence of SN in GH-treated childhood cancer survivors in outpatient observational studies of GH replacement. Design: Retrospective analysis of two prospective cohort studies that collected data on safety of GH replacement as prescribed in clinical practice. Methods: Childhood cancer survivors enrolled in Eli Lilly and Company's pediatric (Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study (GeNeSIS)) and adult (Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study (HypoCCS)) observational studies of GH treatment were assessed for incidence of SN. Results: The percentage of childhood cancer survivors treated with GH who developed a SN was 3.8% in pediatric GeNeSIS participants and 6.0% in adult HypoCCS participants. The estimated cumulative incidence of SN at 5 years of follow-up in these studies was 6.2 and 4.8% respectively. Conclusions: The incidence of SN in GeNeSIS and HypoCCS GH-treated participants is similar to the published literature and is thus consistent with increased risk of SN in childhood cancer survivors treated with GH. As follow-up times were relatively short (< 3 years), longer observation is recommended. Nevertheless, clinicians should be alerted to the possibility of increased risk of SN in childhood cancer survivors treated with GH and continue chronic surveillance. European Journal of Endocrinology 168 565-57

    Quality of life after long-term biochemical control of acromegaly.

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    PURPOSE: To assess long-term quality of life (QoL) in patients with sustained biochemical control of acromegaly, comparing those receiving vs not receiving pharmacotherapy (primary analysis); to assess change in QoL over time (secondary analysis). METHODS: Cross-sectional study, with a secondary longitudinal component, of 58 patients with biochemically controlled acromegaly. All had participated in studies assessing QoL years previously, after having undergone surgery ± radiotherapy. One cohort received medical therapy [MED (n = 33)]; the other did not [NO-MED (n = 25)]. QoL was assessed by the 36-Item-Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), Acromegaly Quality of Life Questionnaire (AcroQoL), Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI), Symptom Questionnaire, and QoL-Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA). RESULTS: Mean (± SD) duration of biochemical control was 15.0 ± 6.4 years for MED and 20.4 ± 8.2 years for NO-MED (p = 0.007). 58% of subjects scored \u3c 25% of normal on ≥ 1 SF-36 domain and 32% scored \u3c 25% of normal on ≥ 4 of 8 domains. Comparing MED vs NO-MED and controlling for duration of biochemical control, there were no significant differences in QoL by SF-36, AcroQOL, GIQLI, Symptom Questionnaire, or QoL-AGHDA. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) but not radiotherapy predicted poorer QoL. In MED, QoL improved over time in three AcroQoL domains and two GIQLI domains. In NO-MED, QoL worsened in two SF-36 domains and two Symptom Questionnaire domains; QoL-AGHDA scores also worsened in subjects with GHD. CONCLUSION: A history of acromegaly and development of GHD, but not pharmacologic or radiotherapy, are detrimental to QoL, which remains poor over the long-term despite biochemical control
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