187 research outputs found

    A Comparison of State-Based Modelling Tools for Model Validation

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    In model-based testing, one of the biggest decisions taken before modelling is the modelling language and the model analysis tool to be used to model the system under investigation. UML, Alloy and Z are examples of popular state-based modelling languages. In the literature, there has been research about the similarities and the differences between modelling languages. However, we believe that, in addition to recognising the expressive power of modelling languages, it is crucial to detect the capabilities and the weaknesses of analysis tools that parse and analyse models written in these languages. In order to explore this area, we have chosen four model analysis tools: USE, Alloy Analyzer, ZLive and ProZ and observed how modelling and validation stages of MBT are handled by these tools for the same system. Through this experiment, we not only concretise the tasks that form the modelling and validation stages of MBT process, but also reveal how efficiently these tasks are carried out in different tools

    Putting formal specifications under the magnifying glass: Model-based testing for validation

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    A software development process is effectively an abstract form of model transformation, starting from an end-user model of requirements, through to a system model for which code can be automatically generated. The success (or failure) of such a transformation depends substantially on obtaining a correct, well-formed initial model that captures user concerns. Model-based testing automates black box testing based on the model of the system under analysis. This paper proposes and evaluates a novel model-based testing technique that aims to reveal specification/requirement-related errors by generating test cases from a test model and exercising them on the design model. The case study outlined in the paper shows that a separate test model not only increases the level of objectivity of the requirements, but also supports the validation of the system under test through test case generation. The results obtained from the case study support the hypothesis that there may be discrepancies between the formal specification of the system modeled at developer end and the problem to be solved, and using solely formal verification methods may not be sufficient to reveal these. The approach presented in this paper aims at providing means to obtain greater confidence in the design model that is used as the basis for code generation

    Unifying heterogeneous state-spaces with lenses

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    Most verification approaches embed a model of program state into their semantic treatment. Though a variety of heterogeneous state-space models exists,they all possess common theoretical properties one would like to capture abstractly,such as the common algebraic laws of programming. In this paper,we propose lenses as a universal state-space modelling solution. Lenses provide an abstract interface for manipulating data types through spatially-separated views. We define a lens algebra that enables their composition and comparison,and apply it to formally model variables and alphabets in Hoare and Heā€™s Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP). The combination of lenses and relational algebra gives rise to a model for UTP in which its fundamental laws can be verified. Moreover,we illustrate how lenses can be used to model more complex state notions such as memory stores and parallel states. We provide a mechanisation in Isabelle/HOL that validates our theory,and facilitates its use in program verification

    A Pattern-based deadlock-freedom analysis strategy for concurrent systems

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    Local analysis has long been recognised as an effective tool to combat the state-space explosion problem. In this work, we propose a method that systematises the use of local analysis in the verification of deadlock freedom for concurrent and distributed systems. It combines a strategy for system decomposition with the verification of the decomposed subsystems via adherence to behavioural patterns. At the core of our work, we have a number of CSP refinement expressions that allows the user of our method to automatically verify all the behavioural restrictions that we impose. We also propose a prototype tool to support our method. Finally, we demonstrate the practical impact our method can have by analysing how it fares when applied to some examples

    Albert: A CDT in Autonomous Robotic Systems for Laboratory Experiments

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    Robo-Chemistr y ā€¢ Chemistry as a Service: enable the Global South ā€¢ Access database of existing molecule synthesis ā€¢ Map out synthesis steps ā€¢ Autonomously execute steps ā€¢ Real reagents in robotic reactor

    CPD Course: Assured Software Engineering

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    ā€¢ Length: 5 days ā€¢ Attendance: Full-time or remote ā€¢ Pre-requisite: BSc Computer Science (or equivalent) ā€¢ Deliver y: 50% lecture, 50% problem-based learning ā€¢ Outcomes Understand model-based engineering + proof Understand Interactive proof techniques Use modelling, animation, & verification Understand advanced modelling techniques ā€¢ Awards Attendance certificate CPD credits for BCS & IE

    Towards a UTP semantics for modelica

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    We describe our work on a UTP semantics for the dynamic systems modelling language Modelica. This is a language for modelling a systemā€™s continuous behaviour using a combination of differential algebraic equations and an event-handling system. We develop a novel UTP theory of hybrid relations, inspired by Hybrid CSP and Duration Calculus, that is purely relational and provides uniform handling of continuous and discrete variables. This theory is mechanised in our Isabelle implementation of the UTP, Isabelle/UTP, with which we verify some algebraic properties. Finally, we show how a subset of Modelica models can be given semantics using our theory. When combined with the wealth of existing UTP theories for discrete system modelling, our work enables a sound approach to heterogeneous semantics for Cyber-Physical systems by leveraging the theory linking facilities of the UTP

    Automated verification of reactive and concurrent programs by calculation

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    Reactive programs combine traditional sequential programming constructs with primitives to allow communication with other concurrent agents. They are ubiquitous in modern applications, ranging from components systems and web services, to cyber-physical systems and autonomous robots. In this paper, we present an algebraic verification strategy for concurrent reactive programs, with a large or infinite state space. We define novel operators to characterise interactions and state updates, and an associated equational theory. With this we can calculate a reactive program's denotational semantics, and thereby facilitate automated proof. Of note is our reasoning support for iterative programs with reactive invariants, based on Kleene algebra, and for parallel composition. We illustrate our strategy by verifying a reactive buffer. Our laws and strategy are mechanised in Isabelle/UTP, our implementation of Hoare and He's Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP) framework, to provide soundness guarantees and practical verification support

    Heterogeneous Semantics and Unifying Theories

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    Model-driven development is being used increasingly in the development of modern computer-based systems. In the case of cyber-physical systems (including robotics and autonomous systems) no single modelling solution is adequate to cover all aspects of a system, such as discrete control, continuous dynamics, and communication networking. Instead, a heterogeneous modelling solution must be adopted. We propose a theory engineering technique involving Isabelle/HOL and Hoare & Heā€™s Unifying Theories of Programming. We illustrate this approach with mechanised theories for building a contractual theory of sequential programming, a theory of pointer-based programs, and the reactive theory underpinning CSPā€™s process algebra. Galois connections provide the mechanism for linking these theories
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