2,877 research outputs found

### Periodic shedding of vortex dipoles from a moving penetrable obstacle in a Bose-Einstein condensate

We investigate vortex shedding from a moving penetrable obstacle in a highly
oblate Bose-Einstein condensate. The penetrable obstacle is formed by a
repulsive Gaussian laser beam that has the potential barrier height lower than
the chemical potential of the condensate. The moving obstacle periodically
generates vortex dipoles and the vortex shedding frequency $f_v$ linearly
increases with the obstacle velocity $v$ as $f_v=a(v-v_c)$, where $v_c$ is a
critical velocity. Based on periodic shedding behavior, we demonstrate
deterministic generation of a single vortex dipole by applying a short linear
sweep of a laser beam. This method will allow further controlled vortex
experiments such as dipole-dipole collisions.Comment: 6 pages, 7 figure

### Observation of wall-vortex composite defects in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate

We report the observation of spin domain walls bounded by half-quantum
vortices (HQVs) in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate with antiferromagnetic
interactions. A spinor condensate is initially prepared in the easy-plane polar
phase, and then, suddenly quenched into the easy-axis polar phase. Domain walls
are created via the spontaneous $\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry breaking in the phase
transition and the walls dynamically split into composite defects due to snake
instability. The end points of the defects are identified as HQVs for the polar
order parameter and the mass supercurrent in their proximity is demonstrated
using Bragg scattering. In a strong quench regime, we observe that singly
charged quantum vortices are formed with the relaxation of free wall-vortex
composite defects. Our results demonstrate a nucleation mechanism for composite
defects via phase transition dynamics.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, reference update

### Critical Velocity for Vortex Shedding in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

We present measurements of the critical velocity for vortex shedding in a
highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensate with a moving repulsive Gaussian laser
beam. As a function of the barrier height $V_0$, the critical velocity $v_c$
shows a dip structure having a minimum at $V_0 \approx \mu$, where $\mu$ is
the chemical potential of the condensate. At fixed $V_0\approx 7\mu$, we
observe that the ratio of $v_c$ to the speed of sound $c_s$ monotonically
increases for decreasing $\sigma/\xi$, where $\sigma$ is the beam width and
$\xi$ is the condensate healing length. The measured upper bound for $v_c/c_s$
is about 0.4, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for a
two-dimensional superflow past a circular cylinder. We explain our results with
the density reduction effect of the soft boundary of the Gaussian obstacle,
based on the local Landau criterion for superfluidity.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

### Observation of vortex-antivortex pairing in decaying 2D turbulence of a superfluid gas

In a two-dimensional (2D) classical fluid, a large-scale flow structure
emerges out of turbulence, which is known as the inverse energy cascade where
energy flows from small to large length scales. An interesting question is
whether this phenomenon can occur in a superfluid, which is inviscid and
irrotational by nature. Atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of highly
oblate geometry provide an experimental venue for studying 2D superfluid
turbulence, but their full investigation has been hindered due to a lack of the
circulation sign information of individual quantum vortices in a turbulent
sample. Here, we demonstrate a vortex sign detection method by using Bragg
scattering, and we investigate decaying turbulence in a highly oblate BEC at
low temperatures, with our lowest being $\sim 0.5 T_c$, where $T_c$ is the
superfluid critical temperature. We observe that weak spatial pairing between
vortices and antivortices develops in the turbulent BEC, which corresponds to
the vortex-dipole gas regime predicted for high dissipation. Our results
provide a direct quantitative marker for the survey of various 2D turbulence
regimes in the BEC system.Comment: 8 pages, 8 figure

### Relaxation of superfluid turbulence in highly oblate Bose-Einstein condensates

We investigate thermal relaxation of superfluid turbulence in a highly oblate
Bose-Einstein condensate. We generate turbulent flow in the condensate by
sweeping the center region of the condensate with a repulsive optical
potential. The turbulent condensate shows a spatially disordered distribution
of quantized vortices and the vortex number of the condensate exhibits
nonexponential decay behavior which we attribute to the vortex pair
annihilation. The vortex-antivortex collisions in the condensate are identified
with crescent-shaped, coalesced vortex cores. We observe that the
nonexponential decay of the vortex number is quantitatively well described by a
rate equation consisting of one-body and two-body decay terms. In our
measurement, we find that the local two-body decay rate is closely proportional
to $T^2/\mu$, where $T$ is the temperature and $\mu$ is the chemical potential.Comment: 7 pages, 9 figure

### Observation of a Geometric Hall Effect in a Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate with a Skyrmion Spin Texture

For a spin-carrying particle moving in a spatially varying magnetic field,
effective electromagnetic forces can arise due to the geometric phase
associated with adiabatic spin rotation of the particle. We report the
observation of a geometric Hall effect in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate
with a skyrmion spin texture. Under translational oscillations of the spin
texture, the condensate resonantly develops a circular motion in a harmonic
trap, demonstrating the existence of an effective Lorentz force. When the
condensate circulates, quantized vortices are nucleated in the boundary region
of the condensate and the vortex number increases over 100 without significant
heating. We attribute the vortex nucleation to the shearing effect of the
effective Lorentz force from the inhomogeneous effective magnetic field.Comment: 9 pages, 11 figure

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