21 research outputs found

    Organized Labor Views the Loan Shark Problem

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    Gene‚Äďgene interaction of AhRwith and within the Wntcascade affects susceptibility to lung cancer

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    Background Aberrant Wnt signalling, regulating cell development and stemness, influences the development of many cancer types. The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates tumorigenesis of environmental pollutants. Complex interaction patterns of genes assigned to AhR/Wnt-signalling were recently associated with lung cancer susceptibility. Aim To assess the association and predictive ability of AhR/Wnt-genes with lung cancer in cases and controls of European descent. Methods Odds ratios (OR) were estimated for genomic variants assigned to the Wnt agonist and the antagonistic genes DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, FRZB, SFRP4 and Axin2. Logistic regression models with variable selection were trained, validated and tested to predict lung cancer, at which other previously identified SNPs that have been robustly associated with lung cancer risk could also enter the model. Furthermore, decision trees were created to investigate variant x variant interaction. All analyses were performed for overall lung cancer and for subgroups. Results No genome-wide significant association of AhR/Wnt-genes with overall lung cancer was observed, but within the subgroups of ever smokers (e.g., maker rs2722278 SFRP4; OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.13-1.27; p = 5.6 x 10(-10)) and never smokers (e.g., maker rs1133683 Axin2; OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.19-1.35; p = 1.0 x 10(-12)). Although predictability is poor, AhR/Wnt-variants are unexpectedly overrepresented in optimized prediction scores for overall lung cancer and for small cell lung cancer. Remarkably, the score for never-smokers contained solely two AhR/Wnt-variants. The optimal decision tree for never smokers consists of 7 AhR/Wnt-variants and only two lung cancer variants. Conclusions The role of variants belonging to Wnt/AhR-pathways in lung cancer susceptibility may be underrated in main-effects association analysis. Complex interaction patterns in individuals of European descent have moderate predictive capacity for lung cancer or subgroups thereof, especially in never smokers

    Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes.

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    Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer

    Protein-altering germline mutations implicate novel genes related to lung cancer development

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    Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ8.82, P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.18‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ10‚ąí15) and replication (adjusted OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.93, P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.22‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ10‚ąí3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ2.61, P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ7.98‚ÄČ√ó‚ÄČ10‚ąí22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.55, P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk

    Sähköinen kirjaaminen heräämön hoitotyössä

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    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tehdä Nokian terveyskeskuksen leikkausosaston heräämön sairaanhoitajille kirjaamisrunko sähköiseen potilastietojärjestelmään, jonka avulla osaston sairaanhoitajat jäsentävät hoitotyön kirjaamistaan heräämöhoidon aikana. Opinnäytetyön tehtävänä on selvittää, mitkä asiat ovat olennaisia sairaanhoitajan kirjata potilaan päiväkirurgisen heräämöhoidon aikana hyvän hoidon jatkuvuuden kannalta. Tavoitteena on saada yhtenäistettyä kirjaamiskäytäntöjä kyseisessä yksikössä, sekä auttaa sairaanhoitajia kirjaamaan tehokkaasti, mutta laadukkaasti. Työ toteutettiin kirjallisuuden pohjalta, sekä työelämäyhteyttä haastatellen teemahaastattelulla ja heidän aikai-simpia materiaalejaan hyväksikäyttäen. Työssä käsitellään postoperatiivista hoitoa, päiväkirurgisen potilaan heräämöhoidon erityispiirteitä, kirjaamista sekä potilasturvallisuutta. Potilaan välitön leikkauksen jälkeinen hoito tapahtuu erityisvalvonnassa eli heräämössä, jossa päiväkirurgiset potilaat toipuvat anestesiasta ja lopulta kuntoutuvat kotikuntoisiksi. Tällöin hoitosuhde on lyhyt, ja sairaanhoitajan vuorovaikutustaidot sekä kirjaamisen merkitys korostuvat potilasturvallisuuden kannalta. Hyvä tiedonkulku on tärkeä perustekijä turvallisessa ja laadukkaassa hoidossa. Omaan tuotokselliseen lopputulokseemme valitsimme kirjauksen pääkohdiksi postoperatiivisen hoidon seitsemän tärkeintä osa-aluetta, joita sairaanhoitaja heräämöhoitotyössä seuraa. Liitimme mukaan myös päiväkirurgisen potilaan kotiutumiskriteerit, joita sairaanhoitaja voi kirjaamisen yhteydessä hyödyntää tarkistuslistan tyyppisesti.The purpose of this thesis was to create a template for electronic documentation of nursing work for nurses in the postoperative care unit in Nokia. The aim was to standardize documentation of nursing work in the unit. Information for this thesis was gathered from recent literature and by interviewing the nurses of the postoperative care unit. The theoretical section discusses postoperative nursing, day surgery, electronic nursing documentation and patient safety. Immediate postoperative care takes place in a postop-erative care unit, from where outpatients are discharged. The care outpatients receive is very short-term, thus nursing documentation and the communication skills of the nurse are very important. The seven most important points of postoperative nursing were chosen as the main titles in the template, under which the nurse can document all the important information of the care the patient has received. The discharge criteria of an outpatient was also included in the template, enabling it to simultaneously act as a checking list for the nurse responsible of the discharging
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