738 research outputs found

    Modular Approaches to Synthesize Activity- and Affinity-Based Chemical Probes

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    Combinatorial and modular methods to synthesize small molecule modulators of protein activity have proven to be powerful tools in the development of new drug-like molecules. Over the past decade, these methodologies have been adapted toward utilization in the development of activity- and affinity-based chemical probes, as well as in chemoproteomic profiling. In this review, we will discuss how methods like multicomponent reactions, DNA-encoded libraries, phage displays, and others provide new ways to rapidly screen novel chemical probes against proteins of interest

    From d- to l-Monosaccharide Derivatives via Photodecarboxylation-Alkylation

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    Photodecarboxylation-alkylation of conformationally locked monosaccharides leads to inversion of stereochemistry at C5. This allows the synthesis of l-sugars from their readily available d-counterparts. Via this strategy, methyl l-guloside was synthesized from methyl d-mannoside in 21% yield over six steps

    Irreversible inhibitors and activity-based probes as research tools in chemical glycobiology

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    In this review, we will discuss the enzymes that are involved in the synthesis and degradation of glycoconjugates and we will give an overview of the inhibitors and activity-based probes (ABPs) that have been used to study these. Following discussion of some general aspects of the biosynthesis and degradation of N-linked glycoproteins, attention is focused on the enzymes that hydrolyze the proteinÔÇôcarbohydrate linkage, peptide N-glycanase and glycosylasparaginase and their mechanism. We then focus on the biosynthesis of O-linked glycoproteins and glycolipids and in particular on the enzymes that hydrolyze the interglycosidic linkages in these, the glycosidases. Some important mechanism-based glycosidase inhibitors that form a covalent bond with the targeted enzyme(s), their corresponding ABPs and their application to study this class of enzymes are highlighted. Finally, alternative pathways for degradation of glycoconjugates and an ABP-based strategy to study these will be discussed

    Site-Selective Dehydroxy-Chlorination of Secondary Alcohols in Unprotected Glycosides

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    To circumvent protecting groups, the site-selective modification of unprotected glycosides is intensively studied. We show that site-selective oxidation, followed by treatment of the corresponding trityl hydrazone with tert-butyl hypochlorite and a H atom donor provides an effective way to introduce a chloride substituent in a variety of mono- and disaccharides. The stereoselectivity can be steered, and a new geminal dichlorination reaction is described as well. This strategy challenges existing methods that lead to overchlorination

    ╬▒-C-H Photoalkylation of a Glucose Derivative in Continuous Flow

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    Site-selective photoalkylation is a powerful strategy to extend the carbon framework of carbohydrates, otherwise often attainable only through laborious syntheses. This work describes the adaptation and upscaling of the photoalkylation of a glucose derivative as a continuous flow process. The reported iridium catalyst is replaced by an organic sensitizer and the reaction has been carried out on 40-gram scale

    Site-specific C-terminal and internal loop labeling of proteins using sortase-mediated reactions

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    Methods for site-specific modification of proteins should be quantitative and versatile with respect to the nature and size of the biological or chemical targets involved. They should require minimal modification of the target, and the underlying reactions should be completed in a reasonable amount of time under physiological conditions. Sortase-mediated transpeptidation reactions meet these criteria and are compatible with other labeling methods. Here we describe the expression and purification conditions for two sortase A enzymes that have different recognition sequences. We also provide a protocol that allows the functionalization of any given protein at its C terminus, or, for select proteins, at an internal site. The target protein is engineered with a sortase-recognition motif (LPXTG) at the place where modification is desired. Upon recognition, sortase cleaves the protein between the threonine and glycine residues, facilitating the attachment of an exogenously added oligoglycine peptide modified with the functional group of choice (e.g., fluorophore, biotin, protein or lipid). Expression and purification of sortase takes Ôł╝3 d, and sortase-mediated reactions take only a few minutes, but reaction times can be extended to increase yields.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant RO1 AI08787

    Total Synthesis of a Mycolic Acid from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mycolic acids and their glycerol, glucose, and trehalose esters ("cord factor") form the main part of the mycomembrane. Despite their first isolation almost a century ago, full stereochemical evaluation is lacking, as is a scalable synthesis required for accurate immunological, including vaccination, studies. Herein, we report an efficient, convergent, gram-scale synthesis of four stereo-isomers of a mycolic acid and its glucose ester. Binding to the antigen presenting protein CD1b and T cell activation studies are used to confirm the antigenicity of the synthetic material. The absolute stereochemistry of the syn-methoxy methyl moiety in natural material is evaluated by comparing its optical rotation with that of synthetic material

    Biaryl sulfonamides as cisoid azosteres for photopharmacology

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    Biaryl sulfonamides are excellent candidates for the azologization approach that yields photoswitchable drugs more active in their metastable cis state, compared to the stable trans state. Here we present the scope and limitations of this strategy for rational design in photopharmacology

    Selective Modification of Streptozotocin at the C3 Position to Improve Its Bioactivity as Antibiotic and Reduce Its Cytotoxicity towards Insulin-Producing ╬▓ Cells

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    With the increasing resistance of bacteria to current antibiotics, novel compounds are urgently needed to treat bacterial infections. Streptozotocin (STZ) is a natural product that has broad-spectrum antibiotic activity, albeit with limited use because of its toxicity to pancreatic ╬▓ cells. In an attempt to derivatize STZ through structural modification at the C3 position, we performed the synthesis of three novel STZ analogues by making use of our recently developed regioselective oxidation protocol. Keto-STZ (2) shows the highest inhibition of bacterial growth (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and viability assays), but is also the most cytotoxic compound. Pre-sensitizing the bacteria with GlcNAc increased the antimicrobial effect, but did not result in complete killing. Interestingly, allo-STZ (3) revealed moderate concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity and no cytotoxicity towards ╬▓ cells, and deoxy-STZ (4) showed no activity at all
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