99 research outputs found

    3. Wochenbericht MSM55 - ARCA

    Get PDF
    Reykjavik (Island) – Longyearbyen (Spitzbergen), 10.06.2016 – 29.06.2016 3. Wochenbericht: (20.06. – 26.06.2016

    1. Wochenbericht MSM55 - ARCA

    Get PDF
    Reykjavik (Island) – Longyearbyen (Spitzbergen), 10.06.2016 – 29.06.201

    2. Wochenbericht MSM55 - ARCA

    Get PDF
    Reykjavik (Island) – Longyearbyen (Spitzbergen), 10.06.2016 – 29.06.201

    4. Wochenbericht MSM55 - ARCA

    Get PDF
    Reykjavik (Island) – Longyearbyen (Spitzbergen), 10.06.2016 – 29.06.2016 4. Wochenbericht: (27.06. – 29.06.2016

    Ocean Acidification Accelerates Reef Bioerosion

    Get PDF
    In the recent discussion how biotic systems may react to ocean acidification caused by the rapid rise in carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in the marine realm, substantial research is devoted to calcifiers such as stony corals. The antagonistic process – biologically induced carbonate dissolution via bioerosion – has largely been neglected. Unlike skeletal growth, we expect bioerosion by chemical means to be facilitated in a high-CO2 world. This study focuses on one of the most detrimental bioeroders, the sponge Cliona orientalis, which attacks and kills live corals on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. Experimental exposure to lowered and elevated levels of pCO2 confirms a significant enforcement of the sponges’ bioerosion capacity with increasing pCO2 under more acidic conditions. Considering the substantial contribution of sponges to carbonate bioerosion, this finding implies that tropical reef ecosystems are facing the combined effects of weakened coral calcification and accelerated bioerosion, resulting in critical pressure on the dynamic balance between biogenic carbonate build-up and degradation

    Cold‐water coral ecosystems under future ocean change: Live coral performance vs. framework dissolution and bioerosion

    Get PDF
    Physiological sensitivity of cold-water corals to ocean change is far less understood than of tropical corals and very little is known about the impacts of ocean acidification and warming on degradative processes of dead coral framework. In a 13-month laboratory experiment, we examined the interactive effects of gradually increasing temperature and pCO2 levels on survival, growth, and respiration of two prominent color morphotypes (colormorphs) of the framework-forming cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, as well as bioerosion and dissolution of dead framework. Calcification rates tended to increase with warming, showing temperature optima at ~ 14°C (white colormorph) and 10–12°C (orange colormorph) and decreased with increasing pCO2. Net dissolution occurred at aragonite undersaturation (ΩAr < 1) at ~ 1000 μatm pCO2. Under combined warming and acidification, the negative effects of acidification on growth were initially mitigated, but at ~ 1600 μatm dissolution prevailed. Respiration rates increased with warming, more strongly in orange corals, while acidification slightly suppressed respiration. Calcification and respiration rates as well as polyp mortality were consistently higher in orange corals. Mortality increased considerably at 14–15°C in both colormorphs. Bioerosion/dissolution of dead framework was not affected by warming alone but was significantly enhanced by acidification. While live corals may cope with intermediate levels of elevated pCO2 and temperature, long-term impacts beyond levels projected for the end of this century will likely lead to skeletal dissolution and increased mortality. Our findings further suggest that acidification causes accelerated degradation of dead framework even at aragonite saturated conditions, which will eventually compromise the structural integrity of cold-water coral reefs

    Compositional variability of Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, and Na/Ca in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779)

    Get PDF
    Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) is a slow growing bivalve from the Limidae family and is often found associated with cold-water coral reefs along the European continental margin. Here we present the compositional variability of frequently used proxy elemental ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Na/Ca) measured by laser-ablation mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and compare it to in-situ recorded instrumental seawater parameters such as temperature and salinity. Shell Mg/Ca measured in the fibrous calcitic shell section was overall not correlated with seawater temperature or salinity; however, some samples show significant correlations with temperature with a sensitivity that was found to be unusually high in comparison to other marine organisms. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca measured in the fibrous calcitic shell section display significant negative correlations with the linear extension rate of the shell, which indicates strong vital effects in these bivalves. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that up to 79% of elemental variability is explicable with temperature and salinity as independent predictor values. Yet, the overall results clearly show that the application of Element/Ca (E/Ca) ratios in these bivalves to reconstruct past changes in temperature and salinity is likely to be complicated due to strong vital effects and the effects of organic material embedded in the shell. Therefore, we suggest to apply additional techniques, such as clumped isotopes, in order to exactly determine and quantify the underlying vital effects and possibly account for these. We found differences in the chemical composition between the two calcitic shell layers that are possibly explainable through differences of the crystal morphology. Sr/Ca ratios also appear to be partly controlled by the amount of magnesium, because the small magnesium ions bend the crystal lattice which increases the space for strontium incorporation. Oxidative cleaning with H2O2 did not significantly change the Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca composition of the shell. Na/Ca ratios decreased after the oxidative cleaning, which is most likely a leaching effect and not caused by the removal of organic matter
    corecore